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文章集锦: 论文选集

  • AI時代的佛法 – 想像與方向

    1. 三種人 2. 五大功課 3. 學會相即的十四原則 4. 做個快樂且有效的佛系人 5. 從世間AI 到佛法 AI 的整合者、領導人及大覺者 – 您就是那個人! 從世間 AI(人工智能,Artificial Inteligence)到佛法 AI(覺性整合,Awakened Integration) 要如何具足把世間 AI(人工智能,Artificial Inteligence)轉化或整合到所謂的佛法 AI(覺性整合,Awakened Integration)呢? 三種人:我們該選擇做哪一種人? 社會學家和希臘哲學家把社會中的人分成三種: (一)白痴/傻子 (Idiots)- 以自我為中心、自私自利者,毫無品德、知識、智慧和技能;是野蠻人(barbarian)的稍微提升或進化而已。 (二)部族/族群主義者 (Tribes People) 以自己的族群、派系、傳承為忠心奉獻的對象;在佛教中,即是以自己的宗派、老師、山頭、道場為“第一優先”者;也可以說是所謂的一師一道、山頭主義者。 (三)真正的公民 (Citizens) – 具足智慧、知識、能力及品德者;為追求全體之福利而努力奉獻自己的人;在佛教中即是證知無我慧、廣發大悲心之真正菩薩行者,以 “上求佛道、下化眾生”為己任者。 三種人:我們該選擇做哪一種人?!? 領導者、管理者、行者和教授者所必須擁有的當代洞見和領導特質 從事件 AI到 佛法 AI的五大功課: 具有與時並進 的創建和先見之明 – 並隨時準備好去修正自己原有的想法和概念 (When you change the way you Continue Reading

  • 联合国可持续发展目标:佛教思想及贡献

    我们正生活在一个对可持续发展和福利充满巨大挑战的世界中。数十亿的世界公民生活在贫困中,他们被剥夺了有尊严的生活。此外,国家内部和国家之间的不平等现象正在加剧。失业是一个主要问题。全球正面临多种健康挑战,频密及严重的自然灾害,家庭、社会和国家的冲突和暴力事件正在世界各地发生。此外,我们正面临自然资源枯竭以及环境创伤(生态环境的恶化)等不的影响::如荒漠化,干旱,土地退化,淡水短缺和生态系统退化。

    坦白地说,我们作为人类,是这些全球挑战的问题的根源及解决之道。聪明的人创造了可以改善人类生活的创新,例如现代医学,计算机,运输,通信设备,洁净能源及先进科学技术。另一方面,具有自私和邪恶思想的人导致了经济危机,环境污染,气候变化和不平等问题冲击着全球。其中还有更严重的问题,例如暴力,大规模屠杀,恐怖主义和区域性的冲突。这是一个自相矛盾的世界。为了所有人的利益,国际社会迫切需要针对这些挑战的新颖,创造性和强大的解决方案。

    We are now living in a world of immense challenges to sustainable development and well-being. Billions of world citizens continue to live in poverty and they are denied a life of dignity. There are rising inequalities within and among countries. Unemployment is a major concern. Global health threats, more frequent and intense natural disasters, conflicts and violence in families, societies and nations occur around the world. Moreover, we are facing a time characterized by the depletion of natural resources and the effects of adverse impacts of environmental degradation, including desertification, drought, land degradation, freshwater scarcity and loss of biodiversity.

    Truthfully speaking, we, as human beings, are the center of the problem, as well as the solution, to these global challenges. Intelligent people have created innovations that have bolstered the lives of mankind, such as modern medicine, computers, transportation, communication devices, clean energy, advanced science and technology. On the other hand, people with selfish and wicked minds have troubled the world with economic crises, environment pollution, climate change and inequalities; not to mention many more severe problems such as violence, mass killing, terrorism and regional conflicts that lead to wars. This is a world of paradox. The world’s community is in urgent need for new, creative and powerful solutions to these challenges for the benefit of all.

  • 马佛教介入公务事务的几点观察

    马来西亚佛教介入公共事务的现象,近年来逐渐受学界关注。这方面最新的论著来自刘宇光的《左翼佛教和公民社會:泰國和馬來西亞的佛教公共介入之研究》。 书中有一章特地分析了大馬佛教公共介入(engagé)的系列事態及其背后因缘,并提出了对此一佛教新貎的評估與展望。 在此以前,Tan Chong Yew 于 第五届国际马来西亚佛教研讨会上发表了一篇论文,分析了马佛青总会,马佛教咨询理事会及佛教净选联盟 (Buddhist for Bersih)所扮演的政治佛教角色。 同一场研讨会里,洪祖丰发表了 <从普照寺事故窥探马来西亚的宗教关系> 描述了佛教如何被迫“介入”公共事务, 并从中解读出马来西亚的宗教关系。

    较早时,洪祖丰于2013 年3 月2日发表了 〈浅析马来西亚佛教的公事参与〉。 文中提到,“迅速的社会变迁及风起云涌的政治角力, 让平时看来对外界事务漠不关心的佛教群众,对公共事务有了更深切地关注, 甚至积极地参与。”此文进一步说 “ 我在2010年十二月份的佛教之声英文杂志发表了“何谓入世佛教”短文,也以主编身份摘录了几篇文章,简介了“入世佛教” 的一些代表性人物。 过后也在“慈悲”发表了几篇相关的文章,也在一些场合讲了这方面的课题, 一些观点也被报章刊登,在面子书流传。于是,在此以前人们鲜少听闻的“入世佛教”,现在竟成了许多佛教徒的日常用语。”

    许多有关马佛教的“介入”,或 “政治”, 或“入世”资料或评论,可从以上几篇论述里取得,在此不再重复。本文立于以上文献,在此仅想探讨以下几点课题。

    一,马来西亚佛教介入公共事务的现象, 是如刘宇光所说的新现象, 还是存在已久?. 此现象是孤立还是长远运动?
    二,“近年来”积极介入的主要内在与外在因素是什么?有何特殊意义?
    三, 马佛教介入公共事务,有何缺失?
    四,马佛教介入公共事务,与其他国家的“介入”,有何不同?

    Engagement of Malaysian Buddhism in public affairs has, in recent times, become a subject of interest among scholars. The most recent article on this subject is an article on “Left Wing Buddhism and Civil Society: A study on Public Engagement of Thai and Malaysian Buddhism” . Two years ago, Tan Chong Yew presented his paper on : ““Political Buddhism” as an Analytical Concept: A Critical Inquiry on the Relationship between Buddhism and Politics in Malaysia” at the 5th International Conference on Malaysian Buddhism, held in Shah Alam. In the same conference, Ang Choo Hong presented his paper “ A peep into Religious Relationship in Malaysia via the Puzhao Temple Episode”

    Earlier in 2013, Ang Choo Hong presented his paper on “A brief Analysis on Malaysian Buddhism’s Engagement on Public Affairs.” This paper also briefly mentioned how he introduced the subject matter of socially engaged Buddhism in the Voice of Buddhism in 2010, as well as in the Buddhist magazine “Cibei” and other printed media.

    Most information on “political” or “engaged” Malaysian Buddhism may be gleaned from the above literatures, hence will not be repeated here. This article, based on the above literature, attempts to examine the following topics :

    1. Is the “engage” phenomenon of Malaysian Buddhism a recent development or has it existed for a long time? Is it an isolated phenomenon or is it a long term movement?
    2. What are the internal and external factors that had contributed to the “recent surge” in engagement?
    3. What are the shortcomings of engaged Malaysian Buddhism?
    4. What are the differences between the engaged Malaysian Buddhism and other countries?

  • 佛教与艺术

    概要:
    佛教的宗教态度包括人本、自力、智信、和谐、如实、着重于苦的止息,有别于其它多神或一神宗教,因此也常被形容为“生活的艺术”。佛陀入灭以后,最早期的 佛教艺术多为浮雕,主题环绕在本生经故事与佛陀 的生平,以间接的事物象征而非 佛像代表佛陀。公元前一世纪贵霜王朝时期,佛像才出现在古代印度北部,最早有犍陀罗及秣菟罗风格。笈多王朝时期佛像发展出“完美造型”,对后来各地发展出来的佛像造型有深远影响。随着佛教弘扬传播至各个地域,也衍生出各类深具本土文化的佛教艺术,百花齐放,历久弥新。依艺术的四大特征即情感、形象、主题、时空占有来 看,佛教艺术自然体现着佛教的教理和中心思想,使其超然于其它艺术而兼具弘化、供养与修持的宗教功能。佛教艺术以真、善、美的价值成为修学佛法的接引,并有助于将佛教的元素渗透到各地的生活日常及民俗文化里,已然成为现今佛教的重要一部分。

    Abstract:
    The Buddhist attitude of mind includes self-reliance, human supremacy, freedom of thought, tolerance and peace, seeing things as they are, and emphasis on realising the cessation of suffering. Buddhism is hence regarded by some as“the way of life”rather than as a religion in the popular sense of the term. Relief sculptures on railings and gateways of stupas depicting stories from the historic as well as previous lives of the Buddha were the earliest form of Buddhist art, where the Buddha was not represented in human form yet but represented by symbols such as the Bodhi tree or an empty seat. The first century A.D. saw the emergent of the earliest Buddha images – the Gandhara and Mathura styles in northern India, under the Kushan period. During the Gupta period, referred to as the Golden Age, an “ideal image” of the Buddha was created, and became the model for Buddha images in various countries in the following centuries. With the subsequent propagation of Buddhism to different geographical regions, Buddhist art prosper as it adapts to various local styles, reflecting the diverse existing cultures of the host countries. The values and attitude of the Buddha’s teaching are embodied in Buddhist art, and can be seen through the main components of art, namely content, subject and form. These qualities enable Buddhist art to differentiate itself from other arts, rendering it the unique roles and functions in the practice and propagation of Buddhism, and form a significant component in various traditions of Buddhist culture today.

  • 想像和方向 – 從人工智能(AI:Artificial Intelligence) 到覺知整合(AI:Awakened Integration) -漫談人工智能時代的佛法修行觀-

    甲. AI時代佛教的三大特徵: 表面化、商業化、功利化
    a) The Three Main Features of Buddhadharma in the
    Age of A.I: Superficiality, Commercialization &
    Spiritual Materialism.

    乙. AI時代的佛法修行觀:
    一)一行禪師之十四戒
    二)肯威爾伯之整合靈修觀
    三)現代禪之修學道次第

    b) Establishing a Modern & Integral View on
    Our Dharma Practice:
    1. The Fourteen Precepts of Thich Ngat Hanh
    2. Ken Wilber’s Integral Spirituality
    3. The Stages of the Path of Zen Now Buddhist Order

    丙. AI時代的佛法 – 想像與方向:
    一) 佛法生活之 AI化
    二) 佛法領導學之 AI化
    三) 佛法修學次第之AI化
    四) 佛法證量之 AI化
    五) 佛法正邪真偽之 AI化
    c.) An Awakened Integration of Dharma in the Age of A.I:
    1. The Awakened Integration of Daily Living;
    2. The Awakened Integration of Buddhist Leadership and
    Management;
    3. The Awakened Integration of the Stages of Dharma
    Practice;
    4. The Awakened Integration of Dharma Attainments;
    5. The Awakened Integration of Integral Cults
    Awareness Network.

    丁. 結論:一切不離性空及緣起,故一切都是可能的。佛法的修行及證悟,當能把握當下人工智能 (Artificial Intelligence)時空之緣起及空性,創造出一個具足覺知及整合智慧 (Awakened Integral Spirituality)之美好未來!

    d) Conclusion:
    Everything is possible through the views and perceptions of Shunyata (Emptiness) and Interdepend Origination. By utilizing the functionality and effectiveness of Artificial Intelligence, we could there create a wonderful future of Dharma, which is the integral era of Awakened Inspirations (A.I) – a new Integral and Holistic Spirituality!

  • 現代“空行母”: 活躍於網路世界中的佛教善女人

    Sakyadhita 國際佛教善女人協會成立於1987年,當年第一次在印度菩提伽耶的大會是靠著三個傑出佛教女性修行人透過 ”龜速時代” 的越洋書信往返來成就圓滿的。而此後每兩年的大會則是靠著現代科技以“網速”前進。例如,最近這次在澳洲雪梨藍山聚集了來自30個國家800多個修行人的第十六屆善女人大會,完全是拜現代科技所賜:即頻繁的電子郵件往來,定期性的網絡視訊,同時還有網站,臉書,部落格的訊息分享與交流等。現代佛教女性善巧應用科技所提供的所有一切方便,逐漸在千年來缺乏各種資源和支持的環境中得以結合眾緣,利益衆生,續佛慧命。本文介紹Sakyadhita 國際佛教善女人協會及其成員們這三十多年來如何運用現代科技活躍於網路世界及國際佛教社群中,成爲不折不扣的現代“空行母”。

    Founded in 1987, the first Sakyadhita conference that took place in Bodhgaya, India, was made possible by the “snail mail” correspondences among three outstand Buddhist women, whereas its subsequent gatherings managed to sustain all thanks to modern technology. For example, the most recent 16th Sakyadhita conference in Australia, which gathered over 800 participants practicing in all Buddhist schools from 30 countries in the Blue Mountains in Sydney, was made possible almost entirely by email correspondences with periodical cyberspace meetings, and of course the frequent posts as well as exchanges on the official websites, facebook fanspages, and blogs. Buddhist women have been taking lead in organizing grand-scale physical meetings via virtual ones, continuing to thrive to benefit all sentient beings and sustain the precious Buddhist teachings using all skillful means in this modern world without being held back by lack of resources and support. This paper introduces Sakyadhita International Association of Buddhist women, the modern “Dakinis,” and their skillful use of all modern means and technology to become active members in the cyber space and international Buddhist community.

  • 從醫學教育到青年弘法

    筆者從數十年的弘法經驗反思青年弘法的心路歷程。 在佛教信仰人口數持續下降的挑戰下,青年弘法無疑是佛教未來發展的重要關鍵。從筆者近十年來在澳洲醫學院推動省思性教學法的經驗,與所開發出的MaRIS教學模式的成果,筆者希望藉此文探索醫學教育可為青年弘法的借鏡處。

    The continuous decline of numbers in Buddhist population highlighted the importance of propagating Buddha Dharma to the younger generation. Through sharing his experience in educating medical students applying contemplative pedagogy, and the outcome of the education model (MaRIS) developed by his teaching team, the writer would like to explore how medical education might be helpful in propagating Buddhism to younger people.  

  • 科技与创新是文化发展的重要力量

    当今世界,风云变幻,科技发展日新月异,各种思想文化相互激荡。科技使人类的社会生产能力提高到了前所未有的高度,使社会大众的物质生活水平得到了极大的保证,进而促使社会大众追求更高精神文化生活。科技不仅是人类文明的重要内容,也是文化最为重要的载体和传播力量。
    创新是人类最为核心的能力,创新推动人类不断探索未知,创新推动社会生产力的发展,创新推动社会关系和社会制度的变革,创新推动人类思想和文化的发展。科技与创新能力是社会发展的核心动力,是文化发展的核心因素。也是人类文明进步的“双发动机”。科技与文化的融合,必将产生前所未有的模式创新,并将引发文化体系的制度变革。
    一、科技与创新是佛教新兴的核心
    诸法因缘生,没有伟大的时代,就不会有伟大的佛教。
    伟大是变革中产生的,科技发展和创新思维是变革的“双发动机”
    新的时代需要佛教的变革,新的大众需求需要佛教的变 革,新的世界更需要新的佛教。
    没有变革,就没有未来。
    太虚大师以大慈悲,显大智慧,展大无畏,施大手段,提出“教理革命”、“教制革命”、“教产革命”,并革命性的提出“人成即佛成”的“人生佛教”,指出了现代佛教发展的方向,为中国佛教的再度弘扬奠定了重要基础。

    二、人间佛教新六度
    1、心灵救度(抚慰、支撑、引导)
    2、扶危济困(抚孤、养老、助残、资学)
    3、人文教育(因果、轮回、慈悲心)
    4、健康养生(素食、禅修)
    5、生命关怀(胎教早教、临终关怀、中阴救度)
    6、修行证悟(菩提心、念佛持咒、诵经共修)

    三、人间佛教的“悲智双运”
    1、社会公益
    2、文化艺术

    四、佛教发展的“新四化”
    1、现代化(佛教只有现代化,才能化现代)
    2、生活化(教育普及化,信仰生活化)
    3、全球化(人类是一个因果相续,自他相依的整体。)
    4、网络化(从因特网到因陀罗网,从佛教网络到网络佛教)
    (于一毫端现宝王刹,住微尘里转大法轮)
    五、佛教文化传播的“三四五”
    1、佛教文化传播三法印:刚需、痛点、互联网
    2、四圣谛:新产品、新模式、新渠道、新组织
    3、五方佛:成果=规则+平台+人才+资源

  • 智人、人工智能与正念

    After migrating out from Africa over 60,000 years ago, Homo Sapiens (modern human beings) have grown and populated in all the continents on Earth. Through the development of modern science and technology, human society has progressed and developed modern lifestyle not only in the physical world but also in cyberspace. Through education, human beings are able to transfer their knowledge to future generations in the Life 2.0 age, this is a skill beyond the Life 1.0 age where life is encoded in genes and transferred through generations by evolution. In the age of Life 3.0 in future, people will be expected to progress beyond education and transfer memory and knowledge to new brain of superhuman or AI robots as well as replacement of human organs with regenerated organs or biophysical organs. In the current 4th Industrial Revolution era, development of modern technologies and also artificial intelligence will further enhance this process. The emergence of intelligent robots in the near future can be a challenge to the existence of human beings. In this era of rapid technology development, modern research reveals that through meditation and mindfulness training, it is possible to regain focus and achieve calmness in the world bombarded with information and digital attractions. There is an increasing trend all over the world in promoting mindfulness and meditation among companies and communities, and this may be the best way in further developing human mind in facing the arrival and challenges of Life 3.0

  • 人工智能时代的弘法

    当今世界不断发生着巨变,特别是在技术领域。每个人都可以使用流动通讯器材,从而简化了全球通讯。社交媒体已经成为沟通的主要媒介。我们依可通过优管及使用谷歌搜索所需的任何信息。然而,由于我们花时间在流动通讯器材上,因此我们缺乏培养和维持社会关系的能力。在人工智能的时代,人工智能可以通过非凡的技术(无论是撰写文章,设计网站,新闻报道,自动驾驶汽车,医疗保健,语言翻译和日常工作等),为我们的生活带来轻松与舒适。然而,人工智能技术的最终用户仍然是人类:如果人类有道德,那么人工智能技术就可以被很好地利用。相反,如果他们的想法是恶意的,人工智能技术则会破坏社会,并遗祸至全球。佛陀教导了一条灭苦之道,只要遵循中道或八正道,培养戒、定及慧。戒与定的培养对于人格的培养非常重要。人工智能可以成为传播佛陀教法的工具,而有道德的人可以成为人工智能可效仿的典范。而且,青年是我们的未来。他们不仅应发展智商,还应发展情商,因为情商对于当今世界的繁荣更为重要。运用佛陀所教导的四摄法- 布施、爱语、利行及同事,可以帮助发展良好的社会关系及团结。
    Today’s world constantly undergoes drastic and abundant change, especially in the domain of technology. Nearly everyone has access to a mobile device, allowing for ease in global communication. Social media has emerged as the primary medium for communication. Programs are available on-demand via Youtube. And we can use Google to search for any information we want. Yet because of the time we spend on our mobile devices, we lack the ability to cultivate and maintain social relations. In the era of Artificial Intelligence or AI, AI can help bring ease and comfort into our lives through extraordinary technology, whether it’s with article writing, design website, news reporting, self-driving vehicles, healthcare, language translation, and routine work, etc. Yet end users of AI technology are still human: If human beings possess a virtuous mind, AI technology can be used for good. Conversely, if their minds are malicious, AI technology can wreck havoc on society, and extend nationally and worldwide. Fortunately, the Lord Buddha’s timeless Dhamma can bring peace and happiness to society. The Lord Buddha taught that the path to end suffering can be found by following the middle way or the Noble Eightfold Path, which encompasses morality, concentration, and wisdom. Cultivating morality and concentration is very important for developing good people. AI can be an instrument for propagation of the Lord Buddha’s Dhamma to all of humankind, while virtuous people can be a model for AI to emulate. Youth, moreover, are our future. They should develop not only IQ but also EQ, as EQ is more important for thriving in the present world. And one of the ways to develop good social relations, unity and solidarity is by applying the Dhamma of the Lord Buddha, specifically, the Four Bases of Social Solidarity or Four Bases of Sympathy, which are composed of giving, kind speech, useful conduct, and equal treatment.

  • 世界性佛教组织及机构 : 人工智能与现代科技的挑战与契机

    近年来,随着南亚国家佛教的复兴以及青年对于佛教的兴趣,佛教在西方迅速发展,这部分是届于大量的世界性佛教组织及机构(WBO)纷纷涌现并积极地在宣传及推广佛教。虽然每个世界性佛教组织都有其特定的目的与任务,但这些组织机构(WBO)共同地在全球各地扮演着弘法、宣教、保护、发展佛教并促进各佛教徒间的团结。当务之急,身为一名佛教徒,我们将根据据皮尤研究中心《2010年全球宗教景观——世界主要宗教的规模与部分》所收集的数据来思考及理解佛教当前以及未来的成长与发展。佛教起源于印度并在释迦牟尼佛般涅槃后迅速地发展,尤其是在公元前三世纪孔雀王朝(Mauryan Dynasty)的阿育王及王室的支持,佛教兴盛并开始向外传播,从印度大陆到中亚和中国。在公元1世纪,佛教在印度逐渐衰落,其原因有佛教内部各派分裂,失去王族的护持、社会政治的发展、婆罗门教及耆那教的复兴以及来自中亚的入侵。

    本文探讨了世界性佛教组织及机构(WBO)在实现其传法,促进,发展和保护全球佛教目标时所面临的挑战。除了传统的挑战,如佛教徒的低生育率,老化的佛教社区,山头主义以及改教等,影响着未来全球佛教的拓展;世界性佛教组织及机构面临现代科技与人工智能所带来的问题。社交媒体,信息和通信技术,如卫星电视和广播已成为我们日常生活中的主导,并影响了全球的佛教工作者。同时,本文也涉略了假新闻,负面政治宣传,人工智能所产生的负面影响,对佛教遗产的破坏、亵渎及不尊重佛像,并错误地把佛像描绘当作作为艺术和装饰品。

    为了使全球佛教蓬勃发展,团结仍然是佛教各传承四众弟子:比丘、比丘尼、优婆塞及优婆夷的和睦及合作为关注重点。唯有通过各佛教组织间所建立起的网络,共同合作,知识共享来达成彼此的共识与团结。

    In recent years, Buddhism has been undergoing rapid expansions especially in the West, with the revival of Buddhism in South Asian countries, and an overall increasing interest in Buddhism amongst youths and younger generations. This is partly due to the emergence of numerous world Buddhist organizations (WBO), that has actively propagating and promotes Buddhism globally. Although each individual WBO has their specific Objectives and missions, the common roles of these WBOs are to propagate, promote, protect and develop Buddhism globally as well as to encourage unity among all Buddhists. As an introduction, it is imperative that as Buddhist we should contemplate and understand the global Religious landscape of Buddhism, and the future growth and development of global Buddhism. Here, we analyze the data gathered from Pew Research of U.S.A. Buddhism expanded in India in the centuries after the death of the Buddha, particularly after receiving the endorsement and royal support of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. It spread even beyond the Indian subcontinent to Central Asia and China. A steady decline of Buddhism in India set in during the 1st millennium CE. The decline of Buddhism in India, the land of its birth, occurred for a variety of reasons such as sectarian conflicts within Buddhism, a loss in public and royal support for Buddhism, socio-political developments, gains by competing Indian religions such as Hinduism and Jainism, and the invasions of India from central Asia.

    This Paper explores the Challenges faced by World Buddhist Organizations (WBO) and Buddhist institutions in their quest and missions to achieve their objectives of propagating, promoting, developing and protecting global Buddhism. Apart from conventional challenges, affecting future expansion of global Buddhism such as Low Fertility rates among Buddhists, an aging Buddhist communities, Conflicts and Sectarianism, and religious conversion, WBOs are increasingly faced with issues brought about by advances in Modern Technologies and Artificial Intelligence. Social Media, Information and Communication Technologies like Satellite TV and broadcasting has become dominant in our everyday lives and has affected Buddhist practitioners around the globe. Faked News, Negative propaganda, negative effects resulting from AI as well as the destructions, desecration of Buddhist Heritage Sites and protections against the increasingly disrespectful and wrongful portrayal of Buddha Images as Arts and decorations are also covered by this Paper. World Buddhist Organizations (WBO) are busy organizing activities and events to propagate, promote, protect and the revival of global Buddhism.

    For Global Buddhism to flourished and grow, Unity remains the primary concerns amongst the main Buddhist traditions. Buddhism shall be strong only if the Four Pillars of Buddhism namely- the Bhikkhu (Monks), Bhikkhuni (Nuns), Ubasok (Male Supporter) and Ubasika (Female supporter) as well as all the traditions (schools) of Buddhism stays united. This is of primary concerns to all WBOs and all Buddhist institutions, and efforts must be made through networking, collaborations and knowledge sharing amongst Buddhist organizations for unity and solidarity.

  • AI時代之企業藍海策略

    近三百年來科技發展迅猛, 從工業1.0至4.0分別歷經蒸汽、電力、IT(資訊科技)與AI(人工智慧)等科技的驅動,而「網路型經濟」的來臨,無論是談智慧交通、智慧醫療或智慧製造,基本上都離不開AI的科技與創新。筆者從《維摩詰經.法供養品第十三》中的「四依四不依」得到啟示,提出四個相應的AI藍海策略建議,希望對企業有所助益:
    一、依義不依語(AI解析):學佛應找出真實義,不執著於語言文字。引申到企業之產品製造或銷售也是一樣,應善用AI科技來解析大數據的有效資訊,再決定方向或方法。
    二、依智不依識(AI配方):學佛最重視運用智慧破迷開悟,而企業也是一樣,
    應善用AI來組合最佳的配方或製程,以取代傳統老師父的經驗法則。
    三、依了義經不依不了義經(AI價值):了義是徹底通達圓滿,不了義是佛陀對宇宙生命因材施教的方便說法。同理,凡人智慧有限,通常只能看到短期的價值。因此,善用AI強大的推估連結能力精準預估產品生命週期,應是創造價值非常重要的方法了。
    四、依法不依人(AI管理):學佛應以正法為準,不迷惑於偏離正道的上師。同樣,企業管理應避免個人主觀意識形態,善用AI進行數據管理,以建立客觀與效率的管理機制。
    總之, 面對高度不安定的時代, 以上四個AI藍海心法或許為企業實現「創造價值,永續經營」的目標。《金剛經》云:「應無所住而生其心」,不執著於既有傳統技術,先空其心再讓創意浮現妙智橫生,以創造差異化的藍海市場!

    The Blue-Sea Strategy of Enterprise in the AI Era

    In the past three hundred years, the rapid development of science and technology, from industry 1.0 to 4.0, respectively, through steam, electricity, IT (Information Technology) and AI (Artificial Intelligence) technologies, and the advent of the “network-oriented economy”, whether it is intelligent transportation, intelligent medical or intelligent manufacturing, basically cannot be separated from AI technology and innovation. The author got the inspiration from the “four to follow and four not to follow ” of the “Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa Sūtra – 13th Legal Supplies” to suggest the corresponding blue-sea strategy of AI, hoping to help enterprises. Four main strategies are resulted:

    First, follow the truth not the words (AI Analysis): A practitioner should follow the meaning, not the words of sutrās. Similarly, about the production or sales of enterprise, we should apply AI to analyze effective information from big data, and then determine the direction or method.

    Second, follow the wisdom, not the consciousness (AI Recipe): A practitioner should break through the perplexities and develop enlightenment. Similarly, enterprises should generate the optimal process or recipe through the AI, instead of the old workers’ rules of thumb.

    Third, follow the absolute truth not the relative truth (AI Value): A practitioner should follow the absolute truth, not the relative truth of sutrās. Similarly, mortal wisdom is limited and usually only sees the short-term value. So, it’s a very important way to create value by using AI’s powerful ability to overestimate and linking to estimate the product lifecycle accurately.

    Fourth, follow the teaching not the man (AI Management): A practitioner should follow the Buddha’s teaching, not the man. Similarly, enterprise management should avoid individual subjective ideology, and make good use of data management of AI, in order to establish an objective and efficient management.

    In short, facing highly unstable era, hoping above four AI blue-sea heart method maybe create value for enterprises, and achieve the goal of sustainable business, that is, echoing “abide in nothing to initiate the idea” in the Diamond Sūtra. In other words, enterprises should not adhere to the existing traditional technology, but empty their minds to let their ideas emerge, thus making endless wisdom come to life, and creating a differentiated blue-sea market!

  • 佛教的未來在AI

       
    佛教不管作為一種宗教、生活方式也好,或作為一種文化、哲學思想也好,都需要靠弘化,才能可大、可久,為人類所用,對人類、有情、世界有所貢獻。而弘化有賴於資訊技術(IT, Information
    Technology)的應用,誰掌握先進的資訊技術,誰便是贏家。

       
    譬如在佛陀時代,語言是唯一或至少是最主要的傳播工具,因此佛不共阿羅漢的特徵中,有法、義、辭、樂說四種自在無礙辯,彰顯佛陀說法教化的德用,在婆羅門教與九十六種外道見的強敵環伺中,宣揚幾乎不能為當時人所理解和接受的緣起正見。隨著傳播工具的發展,由語言而文字,故有經典的結集、講說、書寫、翻譯、印刷。當語言文字可以電子化之後,經典的傳播,更是立即而無遠弗屆。無論你喜不喜歡,誰都抵擋不了資訊的潮流,否則必被它所淹沒。

       
    加拿大哲學兼傳播學家麥克魯漢(Herbert Marshall McLuhan
    1911 – 1980) 說過「媒體即訊息」(The medium is the message)、「訊息即按摩」(The message is the
    massage)等經典的話,並在寬頻網路出現之前三十年就預測它的存在,也因資訊技術的超速進步,而創造「地球村」(global village)這個影響當代「藍海策略」的名詞。

       
    基於資訊的威力無孔不入,以下將從資訊技術、資訊解讀、資訊創新、資訊實踐四個面向,談談未來佛教的弘化。

  • 從腦電波驗證禪修狀態看佛法在人工智能時代的趨勢

    如果佛陀再次降生在現在的科技時代,佛陀是否會使用科技來弘法? 此篇論文比較佛經中科學論述的部分以及在現代的人工智能科技的時代, 是否有異曲同工之處,甚至未來是否有輔助結合之處。另也介紹目前科學界的研究以及社會上的相關應用情況進行探討。

    科學的定義是有系統的研究,並且透過觀察,假設,並且論證之後可重複,可驗證的一種邏輯的研究行為。佛經中,佛陀與弟子討論佛法的方式是極為科學的,都是透過觀察假設的提問,並且舉案例去論證的一種哲學的思辨, 而除了哲學的驗證方式,各種玄理的驗證方式也是有邏輯步驟的,並且符合現在的自然語言以及人工智慧的範疇設計。舉例來說,三藏十二部裡面以禪宗祖師的語錄留存的文字數最多。當開悟的程度無法用詳細的文字表達的時候,中國的祖師用境界極高的詩詞來表述,並且在不同的時代裡,相隔數百年都可以用同樣的境界去論證,而流傳下了如此多的語錄。如果詳細看禪宗公案的機鋒轉語以及弟子與師父之間的默契,可以看到一套邏輯,他們確定你是在對的情況下,按照順序去探究不同的境界,給予不同的指導。雖然它的過程在古時候並沒有進行詳細的分類, 那個時候他們覺得開悟的人會懂,而且各種情況極為複杂,所以不另外寫下來,但是詳細觀察它的過程,已經符合自然語言的設計。

    另外也舉例像是地藏占察輪;一個人如果要知道自己的業障哪邊還沒有消,在地藏菩薩的法門裡可以透過占卜的方式,看還剩下多少, 而他所列出的條目及分類方式是完全符合人工智能的自然語言分類方式。
    在禪修方面,大安般守意經已經裡面闡述了16種禪修的階段境界。他的設計方式以及分類方式是科學的,可以用科學的語言去把它轉化成演算法,這是所謂的轉譯科學(Translational science),本文主要討論以腦電波研究為案例,舉例佛法在人工智慧領域裡的應用。

    The view of buddhism on the verification of brain wave during meditation in the AI Era.

    If the Buddha were alive today, in the era of science and technology, will the Buddha use those tools to propagate His teachings? This paper compares the scientific discussion in the Sutra and the modern AI technology on the similarities and the possibilities of integration in the future. Besides that, it also introduces the current research in the community of science and the related application in the society.

    The definition of science is a systematic study, through observation, generates hypothesis that are tested and falsifiable, logical verification research behaviour. In the scriptures, the dharma discussion between Buddha and the disciples were scientific. They are all philosophical speculations through observation of hypothetical questions and case studies. In addition, the verification methods are logical and conform to the current natural language and artificial intelligence design. For example, there was a lot of zen masters’ record (Yu-Lu) in Mahayana tripitaka. When the level of enlightenment could not be measured using detailed worlds to explain, the masters in China used poetry to express experience of enlightenment in different eras. The same verification method could be used to verify the experience of enlightenment by the masters. Kōan (公案) produced between the masters and the disciples could be a logical system where a master tests the disciples’ progress in the practice and provides guidance accordingly. Although its process was not described in detail during the ancient times, they felt that only the enlightened people would understand, and the processes were extremely complicated, so it was not written down, but the process of observing it in detail was in line with natural language design. In Sutra on the Divination of the Effect of Good and Evil Actions , there is a method in Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva’s teaching on how to divine and contemplate the karmic debts. The items and classification listed in it are in line with the natural language classification of artificial intelligence.

    In Great Ānāpānasmṛti Sūtra (大安般守意經) includes 16 steps in the meditation practice. The design and classification are scientific and could be translated into algorithms by using scientific language, which is the translational science. In this paper, discussion of the research on brainwave case studies and getting examples the application of dharma in the Artificial intelligence.

  • 从“悉达多太子” 到成为一名佛教徒之旅

    从“悉达多太子” 到成为一名佛教徒之旅
    对我而言,这是一段伟大的旅程,因为我出生于印度教家庭,并在斯兰卡制作的获奖电视剧《佛陀传》中扮演悉达多王子。2014年后,我成为一名佛教徒。作为一名演员,我总是为自己的角色做准备并对其进行深入研究。当我读到佛陀的生平和佛法时,我理解佛法的宝贵,并且改变了我的一生。我的生命目标改变了,我懂得人生中重要的篇章:无常、正念、活在当下及服务人群等。我开始以我的身份为人民服务,并享受着回报后内心的快乐。我认为是艺术改变了我的生命。我把它称为媒体领域的佛教艺术。后来我发现,它改变了包括我在内成千上万人的生活,不分种姓,肤色,宗教信仰及教义。一部电影可以使我们走上了正确的人生轨道。这是视觉效果的影响且有科学根据,因为我们在5到13岁之间学习得最多,而最好的学习方式是观察和学习。
    因此,我们必须极力在佛教领域制作短片,长片,电视连续剧甚至是视频游戏,从而通过佛教艺术在媒体领域推广佛教,以与时代的现况,并提供5至13岁的儿童正念的训练,因为他们是世界的未来。它必将带动全世界的佛教醒觉。我们必须了解,佛陀和他的佛法是这个世界上每个人都拥有一个和平和更美好的社会。
    当我们要将自己转变成一名佛教徒时,我们需要学习以五戒为基础的佛法知识,并且我们必须敦促自己学习更多的佛法知识,以更好地了解佛教。
    我认为我们应该将学术与佛教结合,以建立一个更美好的世界。众所周知,例如,我们在世界各地都设有基督教,穆斯林,印度教,锡克教学校,但我们却没有佛教学校。
    如果我们的目标是建立以佛教为基础的学校,那么孩子们将从小就开始处在正确的轨道上,根基扎得很稳。儿童是世界的未来,如果法的种子与良好的学业相结合,我相信这将是一个伟大的社会及和平幸福的世界,每个人都将以正确的生活原则成长。
    . 我们必须集中精力向世界提供结合佛法的教育体系,以使这个世界更美好。
    愿佛陀的祝福与大家同在。

    It was great journey for me as I was born in Hindu family and became a Buddhist in 2014 after playing the role of Prince Siddhartha in the award winning movie Sri Siddhartha Gautama made in Sri Lanka. Being an actor I always prepare for my role and study it thoroughly. Same way when I read about Buddha’ s life and his Dhamma as my preparation I got to know about the treasure of Dhamma and it changed my entire life. After that my Goals of life changed. I understood the important chapters of human life Impermanance, Mindfulness, Living in present and Serving the Humanity etc. I started serving the people in my capacity and enjoyed the inner happiness I get in return. I think it was the art which changed my life. I will call it a Buddhist Art in the field of media. Later on I found out that it has changed the life of thousands of people including me irrespective of the caste, colour, religion or Creed. One movie brought us on the right track of life. This is the impact of Visual effect because we learn the most between 5 to 13 years of age and best way to learn is to see and learn. Scientifically it is the best. So we must try our best to promote Buddhism through Buddhist Art in the field of media by making short movie, be Feature films, Tv series and even video games on Dhamma to compete with the current situation in the world and target to bring awareness specially in the children between 5 to 13years as they are future of the world. It will surely bring awareness for Buddhism in the world. We must understand that Buddha and His Dhamma is for everyone in this world to have a peaceful and better society.
    When we talk about transforming yourself as a Buddhist we need to learn the basic knowledge of Dhamma which starts from 5 precepts and we must have a urge to learn more about Dhamma for better knowledge of Buddhism.
    I think we should combine Academic with Buddhism to form a better world. As we all know that for example we have Christian based, Muslim based, Hindu based, Sikh based academic schools all over the world but unfortunately we don’t have Buddhist based academic schools. If we will target to make Buddhist based academic schools the children will be on the right track right from the beginning and their roots will be very strong in terms of Way of life. Children are the future of the world and if there roots have the seeds of Dhamma with the combination of good academic I believe it will be a great society and peaceful happy world where everybody will grow with the right principles of life.
    We must focus on offering the world an education system with a combination of the Dhamma of the Buddha to make this world a better place with a better future.
    May Blessings of the Buddha be with all.

  • 馬來西亞的金剛乘佛教弘法師資初探

    以在家居士為主流的佛教,是印度大乘佛教興起後的趨勢,金剛乘佛教興盛後更是如此。從2007年開始,直到2018年,直貢澈贊法王一共任命了四位馬來西亞華人成為該教派的阿闍黎與金剛上師,授證四人中有三位是在家居士,這樣的做法在其他藏傳佛教教派並不多見,充分表示法王對金剛乘佛教在馬來西亞發展的重視,也具有指標性的意義。本文主要探討直貢法王授證馬來西亞宗教師的六大特點,四位宗教師的佛法學修經歷,法王對其未來職能之期許以及四位宗教師的跨傳統交流等。

    The rise of Mahayana Buddhism (and particularly Vajrayana Buddhism) in India led a significant increase in the role of lay practitioners. From 2007 until 2018, His Holiness Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang Rinpoche authorized a total of four ethnic Chinese people in Malaysia to teach on behalf of the Drikung Kagyu lineage under the official title of “Acharya” or Vajra Guru, three of which were lay practitioners. This is something that has rarely happened in other lineages of Tibetan Buddhism, and it demonstrates the special importance His Holiness places on the development of Vajrayana Buddhism in Malaysia. This article examines the six main attributes of Malaysian Vajrayana instructors authorized by H.H. Drikung Chetsang Rinpoche, their respective backgrounds in Buddhist study and practice, and His Holiness’s expectations for their future endeavors.

  • HOW ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CAN HELP IN BUDDHISM PROPAGATION

  • 從佛教組織發展 芻談知識管理與資源共享

    21世紀全球已邁入追求速度的競合時代,人人極力追求個人魅力與潛能開發,掌握先機與追求卓越儼然成為人類未來的夢想與願景。邇來,佛教團體組織各項弘法利生活動不落俗套迅速開展,若於團體制度之設立與組織知識管理之規劃等進行改善與提昇,才能與時俱進讓佛教各類弘法利生的工作生生不息發展,正法才得以輝煌久住於人間。
     

    By 21st Century the whole globe has entered into the era of competing on speed, whereby striving for personal charisma, unleash hidden potentials, harness the opportunity, and pursuit of excellence have become the common dream and vision for humanity. Recent years there is a rapid creation of diverse forms of Buddhist organizations and Dharma propagation activities. If we can introduce improvements and upgrade measures such as the establishment of Organizational System and organizational design for Knowledge Management, we can ensure all types of Buddhist Dharma propagation and benefiting sentient beings activities keep pace with the changing times and maintain sustainable development thus keeping the flame of Buddha Dharma forever lighting this human world. .

  • 佛教与部落文化

    文化被定义为一种社会成员共享的信念,价值观,风俗,行为和文物,并通过学习世代相传下去。在英语的早期使用中,文化与动物和农作物的“培育”以及宗教崇拜有关(因此也称为“邪教”)。文化向我们自己和他人揭示了我们的身份。它影响了我们对的生活和思维方式,艺术,宗教,道德志向和知识的。

    本文主要要关注佛教在部落文化中的影响和重要性,对象是塔曼社区及塔曼青年。本文将分为两部分,第一章将考察文化的定义,塔曼部落文化与佛教之间的关系。第二章将探讨塔曼佛教青年对社会的贡献。
    塔曼人是蒙古血统的一个古老部落,原产于加德满都谷地,以及北部的青藏高原和尼泊尔西部的武里甘达基河,在历史上占有主要地位。在戈尔卡王国的入侵和扩张期间,进行了种族清洗,是一段漫长而黑暗的历史。在这段残酷时代,许多塔曼人大量流亡到印度的锡金和大吉岭(喜马拉雅亚地区),塔曼族是古代部落宗教-苯教的信徒,其历史可追溯至100,000年或更久。苯教是由西藏的原始萨满信仰演变而来的,也是西藏历史上最早的宗教。 其崇拜的对象包括天地日月、雷电冰雹、山石草兽等各种自然物以及自然界的神灵和鬼魂。公元767年前,莲花生大士把佛教带到喜马拉雅山一带并改变了部落的信仰体系。自西藏佛教(喇嘛教)的诞生,莲花生大士带动了巨大的宗教改革。自此,佛教在喜马拉雅雪山扎根,原本苯教信仰的塔曼人开始信奉藏传佛教(喇嘛教)。莲花生大师传入西藏的佛教也吸收了苯教的一些神祇和仪式,教义上以大乘为主;大乘中显密俱备,尤重密宗,并以无上瑜伽密法为最高修行次第,崇信 “喇嘛”(上师),形成藏密。这样,融合成以后的佛教,同时亦兼采了苯教的部份形式,形成为当地入更愿意接受的一种新的宗教派别,塔曼人的信仰是宁玛派及传统苯教的信仰。这也造成了这个族群有别于其他的原因。

    佛教对塔曼人文化的影响确实非常重要因为佛教在审视真相时持极其开放的态度,无过度标签,因此佛教容易融入了各种当地文化。上师教导信众要养成慈悲、真诚、诚信、纯洁及减少贪嗔痴。良好的习惯是塑造品德的基础,缺少品德即是代表没有文化。逐渐地,我们成为一名伟大及有文化的佛教徒。佛教徒应散播慈爱到任何地方。

    Culture is defined as the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, which are transmitted from generation to generation through learning. In its early uses in English, culture was associated with the “cultivation” of animals and crops and with religious worship (hence the word “cult”).Culture reveals to ourselves and others what we are. It gives expression to our nature in our manner of living and of thinking, in art, religion, ethical aspirations, and knowledge.

    This presentation, mainly focuses on the impact and importance of Buddhism in the Tribal Culture, mainly The Tamang Community and its youth,. The presentation is divided between two parts. The first chapter will examine the definition of culture, the relationship between Tamang tribal culture and Buddhism. The second chapter will explore audio visually contributions to society made by the Tamang Buddhist Youths. It may be said that the Tamangs an ancient tribe of Mongloid descent were historically predominant and indigenous to Kathmandu Valley and as far as the Tibetan Plateau in the North and upto the Buri Gandaki River in the west of Nepal .Following a long and dark history of systematic ethnic cleansing during the invasion and expansion of the Gorkha kingdom. In this cruel and unkind times many Tamangs were displaced with an exodus of significant numbers to the sub Himalayan regions of Sikkim and Darjeeling in India,Tamangs are adherents of ancient Tribal religion Bon(Shamanism), because of the core theme “earliest religion”, possibly dating back 100,000 years or more; it may well have been the religion of Neanderthal man much before the advent of Buddhism. Bon was originally a cult of nature worship. Tamangs of the early days were apparently completely subject to their formidable natural surroundings .their religious ideas, which were rooted in and dominated by nature, revolved round the various good and evil spirits with which they peopled their wild, highland landscape. Belief in the existence of superhuman or supernatural powers is almost universal.It was in 747 BC with the arrival of Guru Padmasambhava and the advent of Buddhism in the Sub Himalayan belt that changed the course of belief system of the tribe, Religion and its customs reveals that they have undergone vast religious transformation from the inception of Buddhism in Tibet or particularly with the foundation of Lama Buddhism or Lamaism by Guru Padmasamvawa.

    Now, onwards Buddhism firmly footed in the land of snow and propagating the Dhamma in new form in the Himalayan region which is known as “Lamaism” which was best suited for all the Tamangs who earlier used to be adherents of Bon. The Lamaism which was introduced by Guru Padmasambhava had the esteem space for deities of Bon religion as well as it was based on Tantra, which has been central point of beliefs of the Tamangs.The Tamangs idea of religion contains a number of elements which combine to produce a representation of tribal cult of belief system along with being followers of Nyingmapa Sect of Lamaism or Lamaist Buddhism Tamangs religion is essentially comprised of two distinct yet coexisting systems, Buddhism and Bonism (Shaminsm) these are traditionally recognized dimensions which gives this tribe its distinct heritage making them culturally different from the rest of other tribal groups.

    The impact of Buddhism on the Tamang culture is truly significant. Buddhism has an extremely open attitude in examining what is true. Since it lends itself to various interpretations, and resists strict labeling, it is no surprise that Buddhism has adapted well to various local cultures. Dhamma teaches us to develop good habits of kindness and compassion, honesty and truthfulness, chastity and to reduce our greed and hatred simultaneously,. Steady, wholesome habits are the basis of good character, without which no culture is possible. Then, little by little, we become great and cultured Buddhists. — hate and intolerance are for none, limitless loving-kindness and compassion are for all. It’s a thrilling message of reason, of universal benevolence and liberating influence on thought and action wherever Buddhism spread. And this indeed is Dhamma.

  • 人工智能AI時代的佛教弘化

    佛教隨著時空、地域之不同而有不同的展現風貌,佛法以慈悲包容、智慧圓融、平等和諧的精神,與各國當地本土文化交相融合,譜寫並創造出各具特色的宗派法門及佛教文化。迄至今日,人類文明已發展到「禍福與共 榮辱共擔」的國際“地球村、全球化”時代,尖端科技AI人工智慧的進展一日千里,物聯網、大數據趨勢下,顛覆了傳統、掀起了浪潮,引發一波波資訊科技革命,影響層面涵蓋國際政治、經濟產業、人文風俗…,並改寫了人類生活型態,促使具有悠久歷史傳承的宗教也面臨前所未有的重大衝擊與挑戰。

  • 慈善福利與社會公義:以食物銀行為例

    摘要
      『無緣大慈,同體大悲』體現的就是《華嚴經》菩薩廣大的菩提心量。善用社會資源發揮民間的活力,運轉社會經濟流動的脈絡,則有無限量的可能。
    食物銀行的緣起:「食物銀行」藉由愛心人士與慈善團體,募集食物與日常用品,為貧困人士與低收入家庭解決「三餐」的基本需要。『聖瑪莉食物銀行』堅持不以金錢購買食物,而是透過宣導方式,使企業、商家與社會善心人士捐贈食物,再將不同食物分配送給需求者手中。有效解決商家處理過剩及過期貨品的煩惱,並提供飢餓人口糧食的需求。

    This quotes from The Sutra of the Garland of Flowers- “Great compassion is unconditional, Great compassion is within co-existence” embodies the bodhisattva’s vast bodhicitta. The utilization of the social resources social vitality development and economic growth are making infinite possibilities.
    The origin of food bank: food bank was founded by charity organizations to raise food and daily necessities to give out to those who have difficulty for basic needs. St. Mary’s Food Bank insisted not to purchase goods but to get them from Individual donors, corporate donors, and private grants to feed hungry individuals and families. It can help the merchants to effectively solve the food waste and expired products problem.

  • 人工智能时代佛弟子的作用 -人工智能终究可像人类

    随着人工智能的发展,人类已迎来第四次工业革命时代。

    当今人工智能定义尚未成熟之际,对人工智能的开发,短期内我们多少会感到不安,但从长远来看还是充满期待的。人工智能的初期阶段可能会看到负面作用问题,等到一定时候问题将得到解决的。当问题出现就找到方法解决,这是人类的历史经验。至于人工智能对人类的作用,有一些人相信它将为人类社会带来更富足美好的生活,有一些人则怀有人性丧失的灰色展望。人类若以佛教思想做为精神基础的话,第四次工业革命时代人工智能的作用,一定是肯定的有很好效果。佛教善知识是精神典范,要发挥正能量弘扬佛法,在工作上比较容易接触人工智能的佛教居士更要发挥良好的社会作用。

    当我们正视缘起的现实世界,懂得自利利他道理,为人争取幸福安乐时,人工智能的未来也光明灿烂的。中道是佛教的根本立场,空是世间事物的一种特质。要让这个世界变成地狱或变成佛国境土,都在于人的念头上。这个道理同样可应用到人工智能。我们不需恐惧看待人工智能机器人出世,也不要太多的期望。 我们佛弟子只管挺身站出来做好点亮人类心性的工作。当人的心识光明了,人工智能也自然运用在善好的层面上。即使像科幻电影里一样有自行思考、自主学习的强人工智能机器人某日出世,它们也免不了学人的。我们也许从没有憎恨和欲望的人工智能机器人身上,学习到更多的东西。为了迎接这样的时代,我们佛弟子要坚持修持身心,尽心尽力弘扬佛法,努力建设幸福社会。这就是我们佛弟子恒久不变的使命。

    Human beings are entering the fourth industrial age with the development of artificial intelligence. Now that the idea of AI has not been established, the development of AI may cause anxiety in the short run, but it may have a more positive effect in the long run. Of course, there may be a lot of side effects at first, but after some time the side effects will be resolved. It is human history to solve problems when they arise. On the one hand, the use of artificial intelligence robots can dream of an affluent society, while on the other hand, it can give a dark outlook of loss of humanity. But if the Buddhist mind is based, the role of artificial intelligence in the Fourth Revolution era will necessarily have a greater positive effect. Therefore, the role of Buddhist leaders, who should be the spiritual mentors of the common people, will be expanded. In particular, the social role of lay buddhists, who have to use artificial intelligence in their daily lives, is greater than ever.

    The future of AI will also be bright when we understand this real world made of patītyasamutpāda and all human beings want each other’s happiness. Also, Buddhism has always talked about middle way. The reality of all things in this world is Śunya. Whether we make this world hell or pureland depends on the human mind. The same applies to AI. We don’t have to be afraid of the emergence of artificial intelligence robots, nor do we have too much expectations.

    All we buddhists do is to lead the way in leading people to wisdom and to have a good heart. As the human mind becomes brighter, artificial intelligence will be developed and used accordingly. Even when humanoid AI robots think and learn themselves, as in science fiction films, they all resemble human beings. An AI robot with no hate and no desire could possibly teach us more. In preparation for such times, our Buddhists should continually cultivate wisdom and mercy and endeavor to spread the Buddha’s teachings to create a happier society. That is the constant mission of our Buddhist leaders.

  • 佛教组织管理与永续经营

    前言

    今天我们聚集一起是为正信佛教正信佛法的发扬,以文化佛教,教育佛教的推荐,使佛教发扬光大,佛法的存在世间就是佛教长存的象征。佛法的目的是为求智慧,求解脱,了生死,以人为本的宗教信仰是佛教的中心思想。

    佛教主要的任务是为解决现世人生之生老病死四大苦处的人生处境,而设立一个理想的彼岸世界的美境,为涅盘归宿最为美满追求的目标,这是为往生世界的圆满找到美满的精神归宿。涅盘真正目的是为解脱生死安然寂灭达到安乐之处,这也是人生追求佛法最高的层次。

  • 周日佛学班所面对的新挑战和回应——以文德甲佛教会为范例

    时代瞬息万状,佛教的弘化方式也必须应运时代而有不同。向学生系统介绍佛法,接引他们进入佛门的主要管道是各地佛团所办的周五/周日佛学班。上个世纪七、八十年代可谓是佛学班最为蓬勃发展的时期,其效果也彰显。可是随着我国教育结构的改变,社会的变迁,信息科技的日愈普遍,佛学班开始显出疲态,回应乏力。各地区即使保留佛学班,也在苦苦支撑,探寻新的方针与出路。此文以彭亨州文德甲佛教会的周日佛学班为个案,探讨周日佛学班在AI时代该如何操作,以继续承担续佛慧命的任务。

    Rapid changing of time has called for modifications of Buddhist propagation methods in order to be in tandem with present age. For most Buddhist organisations, systematic introduction of the Dharma to students and then guiding them into Buddhism have been mainly done through Friday or Sunday Dharma classes. The most vigorous developmental periods of Dharma classes have been in the 70s and 80s of the last century and the achievements are also obvious. However, with the revision of educational structure in our country plus changes in the society with more common place of information technology have resulted in the waning of these Dharma classes. Even though these classes are to be retained, they will still struggle to function while searching for new direction. This paper will probe into how a Sunday Dharma class should operate in an AI era using the Mentakab Buddhist Association’s Sunday Dharma class as a case study.

  • 学习佛法的技术与创新

    本文从唯物主义的角度来探讨当今世界佛教文学的技术和创新,所有技术,工业和机械都在飞速发展,但是大多数人的思想仍未得到发展,因他们的精神仍然贫乏。现代人大多数的心态都缺乏慈悲与随喜。

    因此,我们必须促进整个佛教教育体系。我们应着重在计划落实教导和学习品德、宗教文化和精神教育。

    如今,佛教文学通过许多现代技术例如电子书,光盘,互联网,等来进行学习。

    根据历史记载,在佛陀般涅槃后的三个月,进行第一次的佛典结集。大迦叶尊者召集了五百名阿罗汉长老保存了佛陀的教法。阿罗汉们以口传经典来保存佛陀的教法。第二及三次的经典结集依然是以口诵方式来保存三藏经典。在第四次经典结集时,佛陀的教法才被记录在贝叶上。第五次结集时,三藏经典才被刻在石板上。在第六次的结集后的巴利三藏圣典及其义注以现代印刷的方式编辑出版。这六次的经典结集是为了在世上延续与弘传佛陀的教法。

    现今,科技是作为学习佛法、社会与精神发展的工具。在如今的科技时代,对于保存巴利三藏及创新;有各种的电子设备如光盘、电脑、平板电脑、Ipod、智能手机、巴利三藏应用、人工智能等。Chattha Sanghāyanā 光盘其中一种可信赖的材料。

    Nowadays, Buddhist learning by using technology becomes a tool for spiritual as well as social and spiritual development, when access is improved and learning techniques are refined. Today is technology age. To preserve Pali Pitaka and innovate it, there are various kinds of electronic devices such as CD- ROM, computer, I Pods, Tablets, Smart Phone Tipitaka device, Artificial intelligence (AI) and so on. Among them, Chattha Sanghāyanā CD-ROM can be used as a reliable material.

    The present paper attempts to deal with the technology and innovation on Buddhist literature in the world today, from the materialistic point of view, all technologies, industries and machineries are highly advancing but most people’s mind are undeveloped their spirits remain in poverty. Most modern people’s mentalities are lacking of loving kindness, compassion and sympathetic joy.

    Therefore we have to promote the entire Buddhist education system; we should plan and project, teach and learn moral and cultural religious and spiritual education.

    Nowadays, Buddhist Literature will be learned by many modern technologies such as e.books, CD Rom, Internet, Online, Website, IT, network.

    According to the historical record, three months after the Mahāparinibbāna (demise), the First Buddhist Council was held. It was attended by five hundred Arahant Theras presided over by Venerable Mahākassapa. For perpetuation of the Buddha Sāsanā, The Arahants took the responsibility of preserving the Buddha’s teaching learning by heart.

    The second and third Buddhist Councils also preserved the Tipitaka in oral traditions. Only after fourth Buddhist Council, the Buddha teaching was recorded on palm leaves. At the fifth Buddhist Councils, the Buddha teaching was inscribed on stone slabs. After Sixth Buddhist Buddhist Council, all Tipitakas were recorded in its pristine purity and published in book form.

    According to the historical record of Buddhism, altogether six Buddhist Councils were successfully convened after the noble demise of the Buddha over 2500 years ago. In fact, the main aims and objectives for convening the Buddhist Council are purified, perpetuate and propagate the Buddha Sāsanā (the teaching of Buddha) through the world.

    Nowadays, Buddhist learning by using technology becomes a tool for spiritual as well as social and spiritual development, when access is improved and learning techniques are refined. Today is technology age. To preserve Pali Pitaka and innovate it, there are various kinds of electronic devices such as CD- ROM, computer, I Pods, Tablets, Smart Phone Tipitaka device, Artificial intelligence (AI) and so on. Among them, Chattha Sanghāyanā CD-ROM can be used as a reliable material.

    The role and functions of the civil society for the promotion of the Buddha Sāsanā, the propagation of the Dhamma and application of Buddhist values in daily life. We can maintain and learn the teaching of Buddha to bring peace, property, happiness and success in the present lives and societies.

  • 大马佛教的传承和演变

    提要:

    佛教传入大马时间长远,可从古吉打建国时代开始,但经历史变化,时事变迁,佛教在大马的发展,也历经兴盛,衰退,再复兴的过程。

    佛教在大马也是经历国际政治及时事变化而改变,因为华裔、泰裔、缅裔、藏裔等族群前后移民的到来,而使南北传及藏传佛教的流传盛行,因为弘法的需要,汉语及英语系的佛法大行其道。百花齐放,百鸟争鸣,便是马来西亚佛教发展的现实状况。

    时代的转变,佛法的传承也随著社会的转型,使出世间法的传承进展到入世间法的发展。佛法即是世间法,世间佛法为利益世间众生,而滋润在家人的学佛心态,因而居士佛教应时代需要而盛行。大马佛教组织由出家的寺院,到在家的教会组织,出家众及在家众共同为佛教的发展佛法流传而努力,中文英文各宗各派的佛法的教学和修行共进,是大马佛教辉煌之处。居士学佛的积极促进了居士佛教发展,佛法深入社会,带动了青年人的学佛,这便是僧伽佛教和居士佛教用心之处。

    本文希望通过居士学佛的精神,精进佛学的思想以佛法修行,带动佛教的发展使佛法深入社会,居士可发挥的作用无可限量。马来西亚佛教居士总会,是结集居士学佛的智慧,发扬佛法的般若智,为文化佛教发挥教育作用。希望凝聚各宗各派各源流居士们的力量集沙成城,大家参与居士总会,壮大马居总的组织,在社会国家宗教信仰主流中发挥正能量。

  • 居士佛教

    前言:

    鹿野苑度五比丘之后,佛陀就有了僧团 Samgha 之成立。普度外道、婆罗门、沙门以及在家众。也有不少在家弟子,深受感动而出家随佛陀修行。在阿难的请求下,佛陀特以八敬法接受女众得以出家修行,而形成四众弟子之僧团,因而僧团迅速扩大。

    僧团是佛陀的宗教组织,领导修行人以佛法为学,以戒为监,达到修行之清净,以禅的修习达到定的效果,而产生慧性的般若智,提升人性之圆满,这便是修行人学佛追求的目标。佛法上说,迷是众生,悟是菩提,所以说,不圆满才是人生。

    僧团的组织有比丘、比丘尼,后来又有了沙弥,沙弥尼,式叉摩那(学法女),这便是出家五众,加上在家两众优婆塞、优婆夷,成为七众弟子组合的佛教教团Vana 而圆满组成。佛陀在世间弘法四十五年,教团不离不弃和佛陀一道迈向世间行,八十岁进入涅盘后,教团还不间断循著佛陀的脚印,继续走下去到永久永久,为世人之安乐,提示佛陀为世人的关怀。

    佛陀为世间一切法的提示,都是为了众生的离苦得乐,了脱生死,为最终目的。以法滋润布施世间的一切 众生,是佛法的精神。佛陀的弟子众多,其中常随弟子有一千二百五十人,常随佛陀左右,还有不计其数的修行者,以及无数在家众的护持,非常庞大的教团组织影响到印度宗教思想的改变,以及周边国家的宗教信仰,佛教远传至中亚、东亚、西亚、欧亚乃至东南亚、中国,遍布世界各地区。

  • 第四届世界居士佛教论坛会论文综合下载

    第四届世界居士佛教论坛会论文综合下载区,论文尚在整理当中,请稍候倒回来。

    Papers will be upload progresively, please come back later.

  • 从义净的《大唐西域求法高僧传》看海上丝绸之路

    《大唐西域求法高僧传》是唐代高僧义净的著作。义净本姓张,字文明,唐代齐州(治所在历城,今山东济南市)山庄人。生于太宗贞观九年(635),卒于玄宗先天二年(713)。义净自幼出家。高宗咸亨二年(671),他三十七岁时,从广州取海路赴印度求法。咸亨四年 (673)二月到达东印度耽摩立底国。其后在印度周游佛教圣迹,在那烂陀学习十年。武后垂拱元年(685)离开那烂陀,仍取海路东归,又在南海一带滞留将近十年,于证圣元年(695)五月抵达洛阳。从此在洛阳与长安两地翻译佛经,直到去世… …

  • 海洋时代与中国佛教的观音信仰及其多元功能

    当前,海洋在人类多元生活场景中所处的地位益发重要,亦更受社会各界的多元关注。佛教界也不例外。在特定的意义上说,海洋与太空正成为不同力量综合角力的场所。相较之下,海洋对于当前人类的文明处境,影响更大。海洋和平,则世界和平;海洋安宁,则人类安宁。当不为过论也。在人类以往的海洋文明史上,佛教曾经占据重要的文化地位。佛教在人类海洋文化所取得的这种文化地位,在文化交往与思想交流的同时,传布着生活安宁与世界和平的相处观念。与此形成鲜明对比的是,基督宗教类型的海洋文明史,往往伴随着文化殖民,乃至文化侵占。于此进程中,佛教独特的观音文化,有着举足轻重的重要作用。特别塑造独特的亚洲海洋文明。

  • 佛教在马来西亚

    前言:
    马来西亚是一个具有多元种族、多元文化、多元宗教的一个国家,伊斯兰教因为信仰者多,人口的优势因而被列为国教,但宪法上规定,其他族群的文化和宗教,可自由传授和发展。马来西亚三大民族,马来人都信仰伊斯兰教,华人以佛教为主,印度人以兴都教为多,也有信仰锡克教的。除了马来人,东马之原住民(砂州之伊班人、达雅人等。沙巴州之嘉达人、鲁孙人等)均信奉基督教及天主教,部份华人、印度人也有信仰天主基督。还有部份华人崇信中国南方人信仰的神道教。马来西亚成立前之马来亚半岛十一州,加上星加坡,以及南中国海彼岸之,婆罗洲岛上的砂拉越和沙巴二州,共有十四州,均属于英国殖民地。英国人占领前之马来半岛,是以酋长各据一方建立王国。当时各个酋长国之国民,马来人、华人、印度人的宗教信仰,因历史背景因缘,已经各自确立。殖民地化后之国民教育以英文为贯彻,通过教育灌输基督信仰,殖民地英化教育的成功,部份华印青少年,尤其是东马之原住民经过英文教育熏陶后,均受到感化,然而穆斯林无论受到多大的诱惑及压力,没有一个脱离伊斯兰信仰。

  • 论居士护法的时代使命

    前言:

    “居士”一词源自原始佛教时期,梵语中之 Kulapati ,这词汇指的是“居家之士”、“居财之士”,“在家学佛之士”。另外一词 Grhapati 原是古印度吠舍 Vaisya 种姓,工商业中的富人的尊称。佛经上常说“长者”也是社会有极高地位的居士。所以在古代印度对居士称为“积财具德者”的称号。佛陀时期的在家男女信徒统称为 Upasaka 优婆塞和 Upasika 优婆夷。

    佛教居士对佛教的发展有著极大的贡献。二十世纪初,因为居士佛教概念的提出,使居士在佛教的地位有著显著的提升,确实上居士在佛陀时期,已被肯定对佛教发展的付出 。佛说,维摩诘经中之“维摩诘居士”具有极高的佛学造诣 ,以其丰富的财力、社会地位,和般若智慧,协助佛陀弘扬正法,推动大乘佛教,倍受佛陀的赞许。大乘经典中之“华严经”的善财童子五十三参,其中之三十一位,被参的是在家居士。“宝积经”中的胜鬘夫人,是妇女界之善知识,对妇女运动做出贡献。以上都是有佛学基础的佛教大士。以后还有各国之国王、大臣、商贾,诸如王舍城长者“迦兰陀迦 ”和国王“频毗婆罗”合建竹园精舍供佛修行。舍卫城长者“须达多”和太子“祗”兴建一座精舍,祗树给孤独园,供养佛陀。以后还有阿育王、迦腻色迦王等,对佛教的普遍化 、国际化的促进作出了积极贡献。

    中国东晋时期佛教史上,第一大规模的僧团为释道安法师所创立。道安门下高僧无数,除了慧远,又有居士云集,诸如,习凿齿、谢按、朱序等一大批名士,气势如虹。隋唐时期慧远在庐山结社,建立净土道场,其中亦有当代大师级的居士如,刘遗民、雷次等协助中。古代中国知名之佛教名士如“理惑论”作者牟子,“法镜经”译者安玄,另有庞蕰、李道玄、梁肃、裴休等,还有白居易、苏东坡、王维、刘禹锡、杜甫、柳宗元、李翱、张商英、袁了凡等都是中国历史上的著名居士,他们对佛法的酷好,修禅参法,深入佛学,对佛教的护持有加。

  • 佛教团体的教育与文化角色

    为什么我们要成立佛教团体?目的是什么?有什么宗旨?什么是弘扬佛法?

    佛教团体的领导人都知道,我们成立佛教团体,最主要的目的,就是弘扬佛法!什么是弘扬佛法?为什么要弘扬佛法?怎样弘扬佛法?欲了解这些问题,我们必须先了解什么是佛法。太虚大师:“佛法是佛所证的一切法实相,及众生可以由之证到诸法实相的方法。同时在佛亲证的方面为证法,就佛对众生说的方面为教法。前者是契理的,后者亦兼契机。”

    觉悟可以解释为,我们对生活的理解,不会停留在表面的现象之中,而能看到事物的本质真面目,明白事物及其产生与发展,然后彻底的体会或悟到,人生和世界的真相,而究竟成佛。

  • 佛法的人生道德观

    前言:

    道德对人生学佛的履行是非常重要的,也是佛法修行的重点。从居士佛教的立场出发,谈谈人生道德更具意义,居士学佛应以道德生活为开始,道德的相关如职业及事业息息相连。所以应该应用智慧为职业的从事,以道德事业为选择,这便是学佛人在社会立足生存的基本生活方法。

    太虚大师在“佛学之人生道德”一文中说,在中国向来有许多学者及一般的人,因为没有了解佛法,就对佛法作种种误会的批评,以为佛法是非伦理的,非人生的,尤其近代讲中国哲学和人生哲学的,误解更加厉害。实则佛陀说法,其动机很广大,普为一切众生,而说法的中心对象,则仍在人类众生,故佛法实是人类众生的佛法,佛法说的一切学理和道德,都是不离开人间的。所以说佛法非伦理,非人生,只要是稍稍有研究过佛法的人,一闻即知其误。

    佛说的一切教法,可总结为三类,一为大乘教法,二为三乘教法,三为五乘共法。五乘共法的教义,是说明由人乘进到天乘和声闻乘,缘觉乘,菩萨佛乘的进化论,而以人生为进化的基础。这五乘教法最注重的是人生道德,为五乘人所共同修学,所以叫做五乘共法。其实佛法的根本在于五乘教法,重在说明人生的道德,教人养成善的思想和善的行为。

  • 推广佛教教育的重要性

    前言:

    现代的中国人都迫切需要宗教的信仰,但中国的出家人却不能够深入到民间去弘法。佛教在中国的发展缓慢,因为出家人被限制在寺院里面,他们的弘法活动都是在寺院里进行。佛教在中国往后的发展,需要出家僧人和在家信徒的互相配合。如果我们再不积极弘扬佛法,也不投资在佛教的教育上,我们可能会步上南韩的后尘。

    我们应该反省一下:为什么我们佛教不能办有素质的学校呢?好让更多的佛教家长,可以将他们的儿女们,送去佛教学校上课,以接受更全面的教育。

  • 略论《善生经》的入世关怀和出世解脱观

    前言

    《善生经》主要内容是讲述佛陀在王舍城郊外与一名叫 “尸迦罗越” (Sigalovada)或汉译“善生”的居士青年说法,论及佛教在家修行者如何修行的道德规范,以及礼拜上下四维六方的仪式在宗教和伦理方面的意义。相对于大部分着重于对出家僧众说法的佛教经典,此经为在家学佛者不论在道德规范,伦理互动, 交友守则乃至于经济理财等生活各方面问题提供了较全面的开示, 因此历来被推崇为在家学佛必读的一部经典。

    同时, 《善生经》对有些人认为佛教是一种偏重于追求“出世解脱”而忽略了人间“入世关怀”的观念有着正面的启示。佛教虽然立本于对“解脱烦恼”及“超越生死”的“出世解脱”宗教取向,但作为以人为主要教化对象的宗教,佛教更不能忽略了关注现实社会人生的“入世关怀”层面。因此,“入世关怀”与“出世解脱”事实上形成了佛教价值观的两大维度,在不同的佛教历史发展时期的时间上以及在出家在家四众弟子的学佛空间上有着不同的形态的发展和意义。

    本文尝试以《善生经》为基础, 从在家居士的“道德规范”、“伦理思想”、“经济理财”、“交友守则” 等层面探讨此经对实现佛教“入世关怀”的价值观和启示,同时也同过本经的“后世安乐”教导,探讨本经对佛教“出世解脱”终极目标的意义。

  • 《沙门果经》对现代居士的启示

    前言:

    《沙門果經》在漢傳佛教中並未受到應有的重視,但在南傳佛教中卻是一部相當重要的經典。它讓我們了解佛陀時代的各種印度宗教思想,對現代人更有甚深的啟示。

  • 居士佛教的时代使命

    前言:

    马来西亚佛教居士总会成立已一年了,全国各地居士及居士组织的支持,每三月一次的会议,以及佛学研讨会,得以顺利推行下去,在佛法沙漠中,我们能够陆上行舟,是难能可贵的事情。做为居士组织的领航者,我们努力推动佛教文化,通过教育方式,把佛法传播,能做到多少就算是完成多少的任务。二千多年来佛教就是这样走过来,才有今天的佛法的传承,这何尝不是众生因缘所向。希望大家秉承做为佛教徒的本愿,各现各自的光芒,聚集众光的力量,使佛光继续普照。

    长久以来,居士佛教的倡导和宣传,导致居士组织在各地不断成立和发展,到今天居士总会的成立,经历了这一段机缘后,终于把居士佛教的理念树立起来,大家的用心护持功不可没。马来西亚佛教居士总会的成立,具至机缘性,正契合时宜,如果这股力量的发展能够持续,就能带动世界各国居士会的成立,到时就能够组织国际性的居士联谊总会,来发扬佛教的教义精神,为推动佛法的国际化,以文化教育的教导,建立人间佛教的理想,认为目前的条件和机缘,足以促进居士佛教国际化的进程。

  • 居士学佛与事业的平衡

    前言:

    第四次大马佛教居士总会理事会在东马的亚庇举行,来自全国各地居士界的代表们的出席,我谨代表居士总会向大家致以万分的感激与热烈欢迎。大家的辛劳跋涉千里而来出席会议,唯一的共同目的,是为了佛教文化的发扬,佛法的兴盛,居士佛教的推动,使居士的学佛能沐浴在佛陀慈光下,得到佛法的滋润,使人心自在,朝向解脱,这就是佛陀在人世间说法立教的本怀,也是佛教徒的我们佛学之本愿。

  • 居士的学佛智慧

    前言:

    道元法师是日本著名僧人,宋朝时期来到中国学习佛法,他遇到一个在寺庙里厨房工作的和尚,道元问他,来到寺庙不修行当和尚何用,他回答说,“厨房职务也有开悟之道”,这种说法使道元非常震惊。从中国佛教来说,日常生活处处都是修行的道场,只要会把握修行之技巧。所以说各自投身世俗界工作,只要心念正行,本身就是实践佛教的修行,一切都是本身对职业和修行之间的确定。日本净土宗的经济伦理是一种世俗教义,以生意模式挨家兜售以实践净土真宗的教戒,透过交易服务人群以报恩,选择沿街兜售作为佛教修行服务的形式。不向利益叩头,而是为利益后面之阿弥陀佛的慈悲精神礼敬。当然这种以交易服务对修行的实践的宗教信仰理念是日本佛教的特色。

    居士佛教的执行是为对佛法的引导居士敬业精神,以佛法服务大众,作为佛教慈悲喜舍精神的发挥,所以以善为本的经营理念,进而以福利社会的贡献,是符合佛教为服务众生的基本理论价值观。

  • 登嘉楼佛教的发展现状与展望

    前言:

    马来西亚佛教居士总会于今年3月16日在吉隆坡珍苑大旅店正式宣告成立。为大马佛教界增添了一个新生力军,我国的佛教事业,尤其是居士领域肯定会做出承先启后,立竿见影的催化效应。谨此向以蔡明田林长为首的先驱领导层致敬。

    无限感恩总会特别安排在登嘉楼州召开总会第三次理事会议。同时安排交流会及讲座会让本州各居士团体及信众有机缘参与,聆听佛法,交流切磋,互相勉励。总会决定采取的这种轮值在不同州属召开理事会议的方式非常可取,值得赞赏。因为此举将会有效加强全国性的法情联系,同时会有效提升佛教组织的互动交流,推广佛法活动。

    承蒙总会厚爱,推选为今晚讲座会主讲人之一。小弟自知才疏学浅,资智不佳,所以向总会毛遂自荐的提出涉及本州居士佛教的地区性小议题,向在座各位前辈大德做出简报和提供一点浅见,让大家共同交流探讨。

  • 在家修行要旨

    先了解自己
    1. 目標決定方向:成阿羅漢?成佛?
    2. 福報決定道場:阿蘭若?家庭和職場?
    3. 個性決定道路:解脫道?菩薩道?
    4. 根機決定頓漸:漸修漸悟?漸修頓悟?頓修漸悟?頓修頓悟?
    5. 環境決定方便:聲聞?辟支佛?菩薩?佛?
    6. 意志決定一切:心轉物?物轉心?

    居士唯行菩薩道以成佛
    1. 居士能證般若波羅蜜。
    2. 居士能以般若圓滿六(十)波羅蜜。
    3. 居士能破見思惑、塵沙惑、根本無明惑。
    4. 居士能得一切智、道種智、一切道種智。

  • 居士佛教的使命

    前言
    佛陀在世间成道立教说法,以佛法善导众生弃愚生智,启发般若智慧,进而入般若婆罗密多的境界。以戒定慧修行的教导,使众生了知“诸行无常,诸法无我” ,的宇宙万法生灭现象。万法空相的了解,也是解脱世间苦厄的要点。从佛法上说,无常无我的认知,是修行解脱的重点,也是解除苦厄的方法,所以佛教强调,应以般若婆罗密多的行深,才是究竟圆满修行之途径。

    “人具佛性,皆可成佛”,是大乘佛法,法相“唯识学”之重大的主张,但认为佛性也是空性,空的因缘法中,因为有了一念“无明”,而产生了意识,轮回为人,所以又有了生死,也有了苦厄,这便是“缘起性空 ”、“因缘和合”的宇宙万法现象。佛陀说,“诸法因缘生,诸法因缘灭”,生灭是世间现象的常态,世间之一切事物,皆是缘聚而有,缘散而灭。既然是和合的东西,必然会有分散,所以说,有合成必会有分离,有聚集必定会有分散,这是世间法的定律,所以世间万法皆被认为是“无常、无我”现象。

    “般若婆罗密多心经”上说;修行之深入“智慧度 ”之“般若婆罗密多”(从世间此岸到达涅盘彼岸)的时候,便可观察到“五蕴”之色受想行识,皆是因为由空性而产生的,所以说,万法的内涵皆是空相的。经上说,“色即是空,空即是色”,是万法的实相,没有,生灭,垢净,增减。当对实相空性的认知,即可了解到诸行无常诸法无我的现象,便可放下而度过一切苦厄,了解到诸法是空相,便可放下万缘执著,而达到心识的无挂碍,就没有恐怖,就可以远离颠倒梦想,进入究竟寂灭的涅盘境界。惟唯识学认为,涅盘也是空相。这便是佛法微妙之处。

    金刚经上,佛陀告诉我们,过去之三世诸佛,就是依怙这种智慧度的修行方法,进入无上正等正觉的证悟境界,所以佛陀要我们参照过去,三世诸佛的修行经验,以般若智慧,从此岸度到彼岸的方法,达致觉悟成道的究竟涅盘境界。经上云,修行必须深入以般若智,加以布施供养的助缘,是居士学佛修行,由迷的此岸达到觉悟的彼岸的主要因缘。经上,世尊告诉须菩提,恒河中之支流有很多,何况诸恒河中之沙,如果有人以所有沙数,像充满于三千大千世界一样多的七宝,用以布施还比不上,了解金刚经之四偈句,并为他人解说的功德。所以说,法供养超越布施供养的功德多得多。对居士学佛来说,佛法的修行是最重要的。佛教常说之偈;广度众生是福行,自断烦恼是慧行,福慧双修菩萨行,福慧圆满即佛道。

  • 居士在当代社会的地位和作用

    前言

    作为世界三大宗教的佛教,与其他宗教相比,过于自守和自闭,特别是在参与社会实践方面,一直处于非主流甚至是边缘化的地位,这不仅极大地障碍了佛教化导众生、利益有情的终极目的,也导致了佛教内部结构的不完善和管理监督体系的缺失,进而形成恶性循环,特别是明清以降,佛教队伍已衰败至极。杨文会居士和太虚大师等人提出了“人间佛教”理念,力推佛教革命,特别是太虚大师,提出了“菩萨学处”的建设性纲领,中国佛教的发展和建设有了明确的方向。惜乎因缘使然,太虚大师的佛教革命终以失败而告终。然太虚大师有言“我终自信,我的理论和启导,确有特长,如得实行和统率力充足的人,必可建立现代中国佛教的学理和制度。”

  • 浅析马来西亚佛教的公事参与

    前言
    近年来,马来西亚佛教界似乎对介入公共事务此一课题有了更大的兴趣。迅速的社会变迁及风起云涌的政治角力, 让平时看来对外界事务漠不关心的群众,对公共事务有了更深却地关注, 甚至积极地参与。

    打铁趁热, 我在2010年十二月份的佛教之声英文杂志发表了“何谓入世佛教”短文,也以主编身份摘录了几篇文章,简介了“入世佛教” 的一些代表性人物。 过后也在“慈悲”发表了几篇相关的文章,也在一些场合讲了这方面的课题, 一些观点也被报章刊登,在面子书流传。于是,在此以前人们鲜少听闻的“入世佛教”,现在竟成了许多佛教徒的日常用语。

    入世佛教的其中一个基本特征,就是有组织地、激进地, 无暴力地介入某些特定课题。 马来西亚佛教界近年来对公共事务的介入,是否具有这些特征,或只是对一些公共事务作一些表面上的应对而已?这是本文所要探讨的。

    本文 以马来西亚佛教青年总会,作为探讨此课题的媒介。马来西亚佛教界内,对公共事务表达最密切关心的,非马佛青总会莫属 。 因此自然选用马佛青总会。

  • 推广“课题学习”佛教教育-我对佛教教育的建议

    綱要:
    (1) 緒言:馬來西亞的佛教教育
    (2) 周五/周日佛學班現況
    (3) 佛學班教科書
    (4) “課題學習”介紹
    (5) “課題學習”佛教教育芻議
    (6) 結語

  • 略論五十三參與居士佛教

    前言
    《華嚴經》善財童子五十三參是大乘菩薩道成佛次第最深廣的開顯,也是居士佛教落實「菩薩人間化」 與「修行多元化」的具體典範,特別是在二十一世紀的今天,五十三參更提供了宗教包容與終極關懷的深刻訊息。

    五十三參所參訪的善知識,上自文殊、彌勒、觀音、普賢諸大菩薩,下至童子、船師、醫生、藥師、教師、製香人等各行各業的人士,不分僧俗、男女、長幼、內(佛教)外(他教)、尊卑,處處呈顯出菩薩修行方式與角色扮演的多樣性與包容性。具體來說,五十三參當中有五大菩薩以及十一位靈界神明,還有五位比丘與一位比丘尼,除此之外,還有三十一位全部是在家善知識,這包含了十一位長者、五位優婆夷,與五位童子、童女,另外有四位「外道」。這個比率清楚地說明五十三參之中,居士佛教佔了五分之三的比率。

  • 印尼居士佛教發展現況與展望

    前言
    印度尼西亞又稱為努山打拉(NUSANTARA), NUSA就是島嶼或祖國,ANTARA就是在⋯之間, NUSANTARA 的意思是島嶼之間。祖國群島或印尼群島,在這2億4千萬人口的美麗島嶼上蘊藏著多彩多姿的文化藝術,多元種族也是一個多元宗教的國家,所謂的多元化宗教就是在這美麗的群島上大家有權利選擇自已的宗教信仰,分別有回教,基督教,天主教,興都教(婆羅門教),佛教,傳統信仰教,爪哇人間風俗信仰教(KEJAWEN),道教(雖還未得到政府的承認)以及政府剛承認的孔教,在這多元化的宗教當中,除了興都教,佛教在印尼,是個古老的宗教,經過千年的興盛,衰退又再復興的一個宗教。早在西元五世紀初,爪哇島上已有少數佛教徒,當時東晉高僧法顯大法師訪問該島時,婆羅門教或興都教已很盛行,而佛教還處于初始的階段,其后,經過二十多年,有比丘GUNAWARMAN在此弘法,譯經,佛教才正式傳入,到了七世紀,中國高僧義淨大法師在蘇門答臘島,巴領旁市逗留兩年,弘法利生,印尼佛教教育開始興隆。

    自七世紀到十一世紀的四百年間,是印尼佛教的鼎盛時期,全國上下都虔誠信仰佛教。當時全國有一千多位出家僧眾,隨後到了佛教王國的沙伊連德拉王朝(SYAILENDRA)建立著名的佛教建築工程,婆羅浮屠(Borobudur), 曼達吐(Mendut),卡拉森(Kalasan)等佛塔,為全球大乘佛教最大最壯觀的聖地。此外密宗也在這個時期傳入印尼。