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联合国可持续发展目标:佛教思想及贡献

我们正生活在一个对可持续发展和福利充满巨大挑战的世界中。数十亿的世界公民生活在贫困中,他们被剥夺了有尊严的生活。此外,国家内部和国家之间的不平等现象正在加剧。失业是一个主要问题。全球正面临多种健康挑战,频密及严重的自然灾害,家庭、社会和国家的冲突和暴力事件正在世界各地发生。此外,我们正面临自然资源枯竭以及环境创伤(生态环境的恶化)等不的影响::如荒漠化,干旱,土地退化,淡水短缺和生态系统退化。

坦白地说,我们作为人类,是这些全球挑战的问题的根源及解决之道。聪明的人创造了可以改善人类生活的创新,例如现代医学,计算机,运输,通信设备,洁净能源及先进科学技术。另一方面,具有自私和邪恶思想的人导致了经济危机,环境污染,气候变化和不平等问题冲击着全球。其中还有更严重的问题,例如暴力,大规模屠杀,恐怖主义和区域性的冲突。这是一个自相矛盾的世界。为了所有人的利益,国际社会迫切需要针对这些挑战的新颖,创造性和强大的解决方案。

2015年9月,在联合国大会上, 193个成员国通过了《 2030年可持续发展议程》的17个可持续发展目标(SDG),并于2016年1月1日生效。17个可持续发展目标(SDG)为:

  1. 无贫穷
  2. 零饥饿 (消除饥饿,实现粮食安全,改善营养状况和促进可持续农业。)
  3. 良好健康与福祉 (确保健康的生活方式,促进各年龄段人群的福祉)
  4. 优质教育 (确保包容和公平的优质教育,并为所有人提供终身学习机会。)
  5. 性别平等 (实现性别平等并赋予所有妇女和女孩权力。)
  6. 清洁饮水和卫生设施 (确保所有人的用水和卫生设施的可用性和可持续管理。)
  7. 经济适用的洁净能源 (确保所有人都能获得可负担,可靠的,可持续和现代的能源。)
  8. 体面工作和经济增长 (促进持续,包容和可持续的经济增长,人人享有工作劳动。)
  9. 产业、创新和基础设施 (建立有弹性的基础设施,促进包容性和可持续工业化并促进创新。)
  10. 减少不平等 (减少国家内部和国家之间的不平等。)
  11. 可持续城市和社区 (使城市和人类住所具有包容性,安全性,复原力和可持续性。)
  12. 负责任消费和生产 (确保可持续的消费和生产方式。)
  13. 气候行动 (采取紧急行动来应对气候变化及其影响。)
  14. 水下动物 (保护和可持续利用海洋。)
  15. 陆地生物(可持续管理森林,防治荒漠化,制止和扭转土地退化,遏制生物多样性的丧失。)
  16. 和平、正义与强大机构(让所有人都能诉诸司法,在各级建立有效、负责和包容的机构)
  17. 促进目标实现的伙伴关系

            距离2030年还有11年,所有国家都在动员起来全面执行《 2030年议程》以便为国际社会带来巨大的利益。该议程是一项全面的集体行动计划,每个国家、各利益相关方和各社群应协同合作使地球变得更适宜居住,使人类可以享有繁荣、和平、公平、尊严和可持续发展的阶段。佛教社区有责任参与并为这项可持续性发展目标做出贡献。

本文试图讨论联合国可持续发展目标计划与佛陀的教育思想的关联性。本文还将探讨佛教界和实修者如何为可持续发展目标做出积极的影响和贡献。基于限制,本文将简要地举例主要的佛教价值:五戒、八正道、法句经、十王法(十王道)、四无量心、七不退法、因果法则、六和敬可以适当地应用于17个可持续发展目标的几个领域:和平(SDG 16)、优质教育(SDG 4)、气候行动(SDG 13)、良好健康与福祉(SDG3),并为此项联合国议程做出贡献。

自联合国2030年议程实施以来,已经过去了四年。于今年,在联合国可持续发展问题高级别政治论坛(HLPF)上向联合国成员介绍了《可持续发展目标报告》及报告了过去四年所取得的成就,并强调了亟需解决的领域。该报告是由联合国系统高级别政治论坛工作组创建、联合国经济和社会事务部、联合国开发计划署利用142个自愿国家所审查的成果。尽管有在几个领域取得了积极进展,但报告也同时警告,如果全球行动还缺乏雄心, 更统一的方法,我们将无法实现2030年的目标。

该报告还指出,尽管全球极端贫困率正持续下降,但下降速度不断放缓,以至于全球无法实现到2030年确保极端贫困率不到3%的目标。全球饥饿人数再次上升,撒哈拉以南非洲儿童和南亚儿童营养不良。除此之外,报告中也提到了加剧的不平等影响了儿童,青年,残疾人士、年轻女孩和妇女。

尽管有些可持续发展目标都无法达致预设期望,但仍有几个领域是获得改善的:儿童死亡率下降了近50%、结核病和艾滋病毒/艾滋病的发病率降低了、与麻疹相关的死亡率因接种疫苗而下降了80%。《2019年联合国可持续发展目标报告》

17个可持续发展目标似乎并未引起宗教团体包括佛教在内的关注。值得深思的是可持续发展目标可在2500多年前的佛陀的教义中找到。因此,佛教徒应在未来的11年里配合着适当的佛教战略和行动计划,在联合国的可持续性发展目标的各领域扮演更重要的角色。丰硕的果实有赖于僧团、佛教领袖和像您这样的佛教徒,感谢大家抽出宝贵的时间与精力出席这场富有教育性及意义的论坛。

Abstract

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Buddhist thought and its contribution

We are now living in a world of immense challenges to sustainable development and well-being. Billions of world citizens continue to live in poverty and they are denied a life of dignity. There are rising inequalities within and among countries. Unemployment is a major concern. Global health threats, more frequent and intense natural disasters, conflicts and violence in families, societies and nations occur around the world. Moreover, we are facing a time of natural resources depletion, and the effects of adverse impacts of environmental degradation, including desertification, drought, land degradation, freshwater scarcity and loss of biodiversity.

Truthfully speaking, we, as human beings, are the center of the problem, as well as the solution, to these global challenges. Intelligent people have created innovations that have bolstered the lives of mankind, such as modern medicine, computers, transportation, communication devices, clean energy, advanced science and technology. On the other hand, people with selfish and wicked minds have troubled the world with economic crises, environment pollution, climate change and inequalities; not to mention many more severe problems such as violence, mass killing, terrorism and regional conflicts that lead to wars. This is a world of paradox. The world’s community is in urgent need for new, creative and powerful solutions to these challenges for the benefit of all.

On September 2015, at an historicUN General Assembly, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development were adopted by 193 United Nations member states, and came in to force on 1 January 2016. The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world are:

Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.

Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.

Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

Goal 14: Conserve and Sustainably Use Oceans.

Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

With only 11 years until 2030, all countries are mobilizing their efforts to advance the 2030 Agenda to bring tremendous benefits to the world’s community. This Agenda is a comprehensive plan of collective action regarded as an incredible turning point for every country, stakeholder and human being, acting in collaborative partnership, to make this earth a much more livable place where humanity can enjoy sustainable development, prosperity and peace with dignity and tolerance with no one left behind. The Buddhist community has a responsibility to take part in and contribute to the successful implementation of these SDGs.

This paper attempts to discuss the meaning of the United Nation’s SDGs plan and its philosophy. which is believed to be of close relevance to the Buddha’s teachings and Buddhist thought. This paper will also explore how the Buddhist community and practitioners can make a positive impact and contribution to the SDGs.

Due to the allocated limitations, this paper will briefly take examples of the key tenets of the Buddhist values found in the Five Precepts, Eight-fold Right Path, Dhammapada Sutta, Ten royal virtues (dasa-raja-dhamma), Four Sublime States (Brahmarihara), Seven rules (Satta Aparihaniya Dharma), Cause and Effect principle, and Six Harmony rules that can be appropriately applied to some areas of  the 17 SDGs: Peace (SDG 16), Quality Education (SDG 4), Climate change (SDG 13), Good health and Well-being (SDG3) to make significant contributions to the success of this United Nations plan.

2019 marks four years since the implementation of the United Nation’s 2030 Agenda.

Earlier this year, a briefing of the Sustainable Development Goals Report was presented to UN member states at the UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF), highlighting the achievements of the past four years, as well as emphasizing the areas requiring urgent attention. The Report was created by the UN system’s Task Team on the HLPF, and was a joint effort by UNDP and UNDESA, using the findings of Voluntary Nation Reviews by 142 countries. Despite positive progress in several areas, the Report makes it clear that, without a stronger and more united approach, we are not on track to achieve the Goals by 2030.

The Report also highlighted that, despite a substantial decrease in the number of people living in extreme poverty, the numbers are stagnating and is not expected to be eliminated by 2030 without drastic action. Global hunger also increased, with a disproportionate number of children impacted by malnutrition in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Increased inequality was also reported, affecting children, youth, people living with disabilities, as well as young girls and women

Despite these areas of concern, there have been improvements in a large number of areas: the childhood mortality rate fell by nearly 50%, the incidence of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS reduced, and measles-related deaths fell by 80% due to an increase in vaccinations. (2019 U.N Sustainable Development Goals Report, New York 2019)

The 17 SDGs seem to not attract much attention of the faith communities including Buddhism. It should be noted that a thorough understanding of the SDGs and the Buddhist values reveals that the SDGs philosophy can be found within the Buddha’s teachings delivered more than 25 centuries ago. Buddhists are therefore expected to play a greater role in addressing and implementing the United Nations SDGs based on adequate Buddhist strategies and action plans in the next 11 years. The fruitful outcome lies in the hands of the Sangha, Buddhist leaders and the Buddhist practitioners like you who kindly spare your precious time and energy to join this knowledgeable and meaningful forum.  

Written by

谢旭原