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人工智能时代的弘法

Dhamma Propagation in the era of Artificial Intelligence

Dhamma Propagation in the era of Artificial Intelligence

By Ven. Dr. Ponchai Palawadhammo, M.D., Ph.D

President of World Alliance of Buddhists (WAB)

Today’s world constantly undergoes drastic and abundant change, especially in the domain of technology.  If we still remember for the last 30 years, we still don’t have mobile we have only house phone or office phone which is very big. We contact each other by post if anyone can use email that mean he is very smart and look modern than others. We have television but if we want to look any programs which we liked we had to wait until the day when broadcasting. But what happen now? Almost everyone has smart mobile phone. We can contact each other very easy across the globe. We spend times a lot on smart mobile. We use social media to contact each other. We can see any programs we want by youtube in anytime. We can search any information we want on google, we can study from online university, ect.  Do you think what will happen in the next 30 years for the new technology especially AI or Artificial Intelligence? The year 2050, That’s the year in which artificial intelligence will be able to perform any intellectual task a human can perform, according to one survey of experts at a recent AI conference. Anything and everything any person has ever done in all of history —all of it doable, by 2050, by intelligent machines. And If you are Buddhists how about Dhamma propagation and Education with AI or Artificial Intelligence?

  1. AI and its miracle works

AI or Artificial Intelligence started developing since 1950. AI can help us for the comfortable life like a good assistant in every lifestyle both personal and big scale work. As we known now Xinhua use AI reporter and it look almost same as the professional reporter whom AI copy. In China, they said that the government put AI Education for academic in the constitution of China.  Moreover, AI can write 30 financial  articles per day for website investor of Korea , AI can have self-learning till AI Alpha Go can overcome the World Champion of Go Game, AI can design website  , AI Self Driving Car can run successfully in 2017 , AI monks in the temple of China and japan can do some duty of monks such as answer the Dhamma questions and remember suttras in Tipitaka, ect. In the 7th Annual Conference of World Youth Buddhist Society (WYBS) in Chiangmai on 2016 led by Khenpo Sodargye Rinpoche, the speaker showed the poems and let the 1,000 International delegates in the hall to choose which one they like most and most of participants chose the one which create by AI.  

It’s very good cause AI no hungry, no sleepy, no tiring, no boring, ect. So it can work all day all night. If we compare AI with computer and robot, we can say that Computer work like worker or low educated people, Robot work like middle class people but AI work like high educated people.  Some people do afraid that they will loss job in the future cause of AI can replace them especially people who do routine work. But some people believe that AI will be our good assistant for us and we can work easier and more quality especially creative work about emotion, relation, art which AI cannot copy. There are many careers will be very good for the helping hand of AI such as Researcher, Software Development, Doctor, ect . Many scholars said that in the future if AI clever than a man we should learn from AI. The website, businessinsider.com on March 7, 2017 summarized 59 impressive things artificial intelligence can do today, here are the lists What AI can do:

Everyday human stuff

  • Recognize objects in images
  • Navigate a map of the London Underground
  • Transcribe speech better than professional transcribers
  • Translate between languages
  • Speak
  • Pick out the bit of a paragraph that answers your question
  • Recognize emotions in images of faces
  • Recognize emotions in speech

Travel

  • Drive
  •  Fly a drone
  • Predict parking difficulty by area

Science & medicine

  • Discover new uses for existing drugs
  • Spot cancer in tissue slides better than human epidemiologists
  • Predict hypoglycemic events in diabetics three hours in advance
  • Identify diabetic retinopathy (a leading cause of blindness) from retinal photos
  • Analyze the genetic code of DNA to detect genomic conditions
  • Detect a range of conditions from images
  • Solve the quantum state of many particles at once

Agriculture

  • Detect crop disease
  • Spray pesticide with pinpoint accuracy
  • Predict crop yields
  • Sort cucumbers

Security

  • Spot burglars in your home
  • Write its own encryption language
  • Predict social unrest 5 days before it happens
  • Unscramble pixelated images
  • Detect malware
  •  Verify your identity
  • Anticipate fraudulent payment attacks before they happen

Finance

  • Trade stocks
  • Handle insurance claims

Law

  • Predict the outcomes of cases at the European Court of Human Rights with 79% accuracy
  • Do legal case research
  • Do due diligence on M&A deals
  • Flag errors in legal documents

Games & tests

  • Beat 75% of Americans in a visual intelligence test
  • Beat humans at Jeopardy
  • Absolutely nail Super Mario
  • Play Breakout like a total pro
  • Play Go better than humans
  • Beat the best human players at Texas Hold ‘Em poker

Assistance

  • Schedule meetings by email
  • Be your personal trainer
  •  

Programming

  • Write software unit tests
  •  

Meteorology

  • Identify potentially threatening weather

Creativity

  • Paint a pretty good van Gogh
  • Write poems that get published
  • Write music
  • Design logos
  • Come up with its own recipes
  • Write sports articles for the Associated Press
  • Write film scripts
  • Play soccer badly
  • Recommend songs you’ll like
  •  

Boring but important

  • Lip-read better than humans
  • Optimize energy usage in air-conditioning units in Google’s data centers
  •  

Full-on unbelievable stuff

  • Become a Twitter troll
  • Collaborate (or become aggressive)
  • Write its own machine learning software
  • Buddhas Dhamma is timeless

Although technology change a lot but the Dhamma of the Lord Buddha never changes and Defilements in human mind never change too.

Lord Buddha always taught us about the 4 Noble truth which comprise of suffering (dukkha) , cause of suffering (samudaya), cessation of dukkha (nirhodha) , path that frees us from suffering (magga).

For better understanding we can clarify the 4 Noble truth in this categories:

Noble Truth is:

•           The Truth that is noble

•           The Truth of the Noble

•           The Truth that makes a person noble

The Four Noble Truths – comparing to illness

Suffering(dukkha)                                                                           

•           Suffering that is inevitable (physical)

•           Miscellaneous suffering ( economic, society, defilement)

The cause of suffering (samudaya) — Craving               

•           Craving for sense-pleasure – wanting to have

•           Craving for existence  — wanting to be

•           Craving for non-existence – wanting not to be

The cessation of suffering (nirhodha)   

•           Nirvana while still alive

•           Nirvana after death

The Path – Ways to end suffering (magga)

Buddha said that the path to end suffering is the middle way or the Noble Eight-fold Path which comprise of

  1. Right View –  View and wisdom in accordance with the Truths.

•           To have the right understanding on matters dealing with the elimination of defilements.

2.  Right Thought –  To have the right intention.

•           Thought of removal from the influence of sensual desire,

 removal from involvement in a family life.

•           Thought of ending vengefulness.

•           Thought of not causing suffering to others.

3.  Right Speech  –  To speak the truth, and with kindness.

•           To abstain from lies, slander, harsh language, and idle chatter.

4.  Right Action  –  Good conduct.

•           Not killing living beings, not stealing, not engaging in sexual misconduct.

5.  Right Livelihood –  To practice honest and wholesome profession.

•           Not to engage in occupations that involve selling weapons, selling humans, selling animals for slaughter, and selling poisons.

6.  Right Effort –  Effort to do good and to avoid bad.

•           Not to allow unwholesome action to occur

•           To abandon all existing defilements

•           To create new virtues

•           To uphold existing virtues

7.  Right Mindfulness –  To have the right awareness.

•           Seeing body in body

(1.  Contemplation on matters related to body, including the existence and extinction of body;

2.  Meditation:  Vision of inner bodies at the center of our body.)

•           Mind in mind

(1.  Knowing the condition of mind, i.e., anger, obsession, sadness; 

2.  Meditation:  Not only do you feel the feelings of your inner bodies, you also see clearly the mind-sphere of each inner body.)

•           Dhamma in Dhamma

(1.  Awareness of what exists in the mind, such as hindrances; 

2. Each inner body has its own Dhamma sphere that sustains its existence.) 

•           Feeling in feeling

(1.  Awareness of one’s own happiness and also of suffering;

2.  Meditation:  Awareness of the feelings of each inner body, i.e., happy, unhappy, neutral, pleased, unpleased.)

8.  Right Concentration – To cultivate the mind in the proper way.

•    Attaining four levels of insight, reaching the Vipasana state and overcoming defilements.

•    Stability of mind resulting from fulfilling the practice of the first seven Paths.

Although the first step of the Noble Eightfold Path begins with Right View, if you have fulfilled all of the eight Paths, the quality of your Right View will be elevated to a higher level.

The practice of the Noble Eightfold Path reinforces the foundation for Right View to stay with the person throughout his entire life. 

–     Right View and Right Intention correspond to wisdom.

–    Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood and Right Effort correspond to morality.

–    Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration correspond to mental development and meditation.

In short, the Noble Eight Fold Path encompasses morality, mindfulness, and wisdom. 

People of the world now spend time a lot for social media and lack of social relations which will create social problem in the future. Buddha taught us how to make good relations with other people by practicing the Four Bases of Sympathy. We can clarify the Four Bases of Sympathy as follow:

Four  Sangahavatthu: Four Bases of Social Solidarity, Four Bases of Sympathy (Acts of doing favors) comprise of

1.Dana: Giving

Two kinds of giving:

•           Giving that is meritorious

•           Giving that is beneficial

Giving can be done in three ways:

•           giving of material

•           giving of knowledge

–           worldly knowledge

–           knowledge of Dhamma

•           giving forgiveness

2.Piyavaca: Pleasant Speech – speech that is kind and pleasant. 

Our speech is very important indeed.  How we say something can either make people love or hate us.  The Buddha taught that for a speech to be “pleasant”, it must have the following qualities:

  • Truth – to speak in a truthful manner, not exaggerated or deviated from the facts.
  • Politeness — to speak in a nice and civilized manner, not harsh, sarcastic, or condescending.
  • Usefulness – to speak things that are beneficial for both the speaker and the listener; to avoid idle chatter.
  • Kindness — to speak with compassion and good intention, not with anger and jealousy.
  • Right place, right time – to be considerate for the feelings of the other persons

If you have to criticize someone, take into consideration the following: 

  • Choose the right place and the right time to do so. 
    • Give complements before criticizing
    • Smile first
    • The subject of criticism should be based on truth
    • The subject is useful
  • Atthacariya: useful conduct; rendering services; life of service; doing good
  • Samanattata: even and equal treatment; equality consisting in impartiality, participation and behaving oneself property in all circumstances

AI or Artificial Intelligence can help us for the comfortable life and free from suffering from the physical or economic but for suffering from society and defilement we need the Dhamma of the Lord Buddha to solve this problem. The Atthangika-magga or the Noble Eightfold Path encompasses morality, mindfulness, and wisdom are the way to solve the problem.

Moreover youths is the future of the society and the world. They should be develop not only IQ but EQ is more important in the present world. The Dhamma of the Lord Buddha ; 4 Sangahavatthu or 4 bases of social solidarity,  4 bases of sympathy are  acts of doing favours,  principles of service, virtues making for group integration and leadership  which comprise of Dana: giving;

Piyavaca: kindly speech; Atthacariya: useful conduct and Samanattata: even and equal treatment will be the way to make good relations and social unity and solidarity.

  • Dhamma propagation and education in the AI Era

How about BUDDHIST Propagation and AI? As we mentioned above that our world today change a lot than before. During Buddha time our vehicle by Cow, horse, elephant then developed to be boat, car , train then airplane. In the present and near future the self-driving car will replace them. Technology develop all the time so for BUDDHIST Propagation we should not reject them but we use them as a vehicle to bring Buddha’s Dharma all over the world. Now we can propagate the Dhamma of the lord Buddha by satellite such as Da Ai TV , Lotus Channel in Taiwan. By social media such as Facebook, YouTube , Google , ect.  Dhamma is timeless while the defilement of all human be timeless despite technology change. We can do more good deeds using technology while we can do more bad deeds or bad Kamma by technology too. AI can be an instrument to propagate the Dhamma of Lord Buddha to people of the world while good people can be role model of AI to copy.

The 4 kind of suffering which are suffering from physical, suffering from economic, suffering from conflict in the society, suffering from defilement,

 AI can help only suffering from economic and physical but suffering from conflict in the society and defilement we have to solve by Buddha way.

The teaching of the Lord Buddha explains the path to end suffering is the middle way or the Noble Eight fold Path encompasses morality, mindfulness, and wisdom.  So to train people to be a good people with morality and mindfulness are very important.  AI need role model so we should put more role model for AI. AI support the propagation of Dhamma while the propagation of Dhamma create good people to be role model for AI.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, learners may also educate themselves.

For Education, Artificial Intelligence in education is being felt, and the traditional methods are changing drastically. This has changed the way people learn since educational materials are becoming accessible to all through smart devices and computers. Today, students don’t need to attend physical classes to study as long as they have computers and internet connection. This is How AI Is Changing The Education system

  • Simplifying Administrative Tasks
  • Smart Content
  • Personalized Learning
  • Global Learning
  • New Efficiencies

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

Habits are very important for the young generation from education system.

Buddhist Education should be the way to create good habits for the learner and good habit for the AI.

Lord Buddha said that Mano pup-pung Kama Dhamma Mano Settha Mano Maya, everything up to our mind, our mind is Chief, Our Mind is Master, if our mind good , we speak good ,we do good.

Mahatma Gandhi share with us that “Keep your thoughts positive because your thought become YOUR WORDS.

Keep your words positive because your words become YOUR BEHAVIOR

Keep your behavior positive because your behavior becomes YOUR HABITS

Keep your habits positive because your habits become YOUR VALUES

Keep your values positive because your values become YOUR DESTINY”

Our Destiny indeed come from our habit and our habit are something that we think, we speak, we do often or regularly in our daily life.  Highly successful people have learned to develop good habits, and it takes discipline, courage and hard work on a daily basis to keep those habits in place. There are the theory of 21 days and 66 days of habit formation but most important is in our human life , the places that we spend time a lot are the 5 rooms that affected our habits- Bedroom, Restroom, Dressing Room, Dining room and Working room or The Auspicious room, The  room of consideration , The room of consciousness, The room of estimation and the Treasure room in order.

So Mind is the most important but must be in the good habit and it will become destiny not only us but destiny for people of the world.

Buddhist Education with AI should design to develop EQ and good relationship to others making social solidarity. The Dhamma of the Lord Buddha; 4 bases of social solidarity or 4 bases of sympathy which comprise of giving, kindly speech, useful conduct and equal treatment will be the way to make good relations and create social unity and solidarity. Buddha teaching the product is very good just make in new packaging for more interesting.

  • Conclusion

AI or Artificial Intelligence have miracle works with numerous impressive things artificial intelligence can do today.  It’s very good because AI no hungry , no sleepy , no tiring , no boring , ect.  Many scholars and researchers estimated that   anything and everything any person has ever done in all of history —all of it doable, by 2050, by intelligent machines. So AI can be an instrument to propagate the Dhamma of Lord Buddha to people of the world while good people can be role model of AI to copy. Technology develop all the time so for BUDDHIST Propagation we should not reject them but we use them as a vehicle to bring Buddha’s Dharma all over the world. Buddha teaching the product is very good just make in new packaging for more interesting by AI.

Dhamma is timeless while the defilement of all human be timeless despite technology change. We can do more good deeds using technology while we can do more bad deeds or bad Kamma by technology too. Technology develop very fast but people of the world still face sufferings from physical, economic, society and defilement. AI or Artificial Intelligence can help us for the comfortable life and free from suffering from the physical or economic but for suffering from society and defilement we need the Dhamma of the Lord Buddha to solve this problem. The Atthangika-magga or the Noble Eightfold Path encompasses morality, mindfulness, and wisdom are the way to solve the problem.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Habits are very important for the young generation from education system.

Buddhist Education should be the way to create good habits for the learner  and good habit for the AI. Youths are the future of the society and the world,they should be develop EQ and relations with others , which more important in the present world. The Dhamma of the Lord Buddha ; 4 Sangahavatthu or 4 bases of social solidarity,  4 bases of sympathy are  acts of doing favours,  principles of service, virtues making for group integration and leadership  which comprise of Dana: giving;  Piyavaca: kindly speech; Atthacariya: useful conduct and  Samanattata: even and equal treatment will be the way to make good relations and social unity and solidarity. This will be successful by making as a habit in the daily life activities.

References

–     Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya. 1996. Thai tipitaka

–     Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya. Common Buddhist Text

–     Dattacheevo Bhikkhu , 5 room for peace revolution

–     Kai Fu Lee, AI Super Powers, 2018

–     https://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/10-roles-for-artificial-intelligence-in-education/

–     https://www.businessinsider.com/artificial-intelligence-ai-most-impressive-achievements-2017-3#security-5

–     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education

Written by

谢旭原